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Gene Review

GEST  -  Gestation length

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of GEST


High impact information on GEST


Chemical compound and disease context of GEST


Biological context of GEST

  • Sows injected with GRF during GEST (P = .05) and(or) LACT (P less than .01) were lighter than CTL sows at weaning; in addition, sows treated during lactation had less backfat (P less than .01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[10]
  • The mean gestation length, mean litter size, mean birth and weaning weights for male and female pigs were similar for litters derived from cloned parents versus non-cloned parents [11].
  • Gestation length, pigs born alive, average birth weight, survival (d 3 to weaning), and days to estrus were not affected by diet (P > 0.10) [12].
  • Neither stage of estrous cycle at onset of treatment nor duration of progestogen treatment affected percentages of gilts farrowing (greater than 73%), average gestation length (116.5 d), or total (10.3), live (9.7) and dead (.6) pigs at birth after artificial insemination at the post-treatment estrus [13].
  • To determine the effect of elevated maternal cortisol levels on gene expression of these molecular markers in fetuses, pregnant sows were treated with 100 IU ACTH (Synacthen Depot) s.c. every two days between Day 49 and Day 75 of gestation (normal gestation length 114 days) [14].

Anatomical context of GEST


Associations of GEST with chemical compounds

  • Plasma from fetal pigs on days 110-114 of gestation (gestation length 114 days) had significantly higher levels of total cortisol (p < 0.01), percent albumin-bound and free cortisol (p < 0.10), and free cortisol concentration (p < 0.05) compared to samples on days 90, 100 and 105 [17].
  • One-hundred forty multiparous crossbred sows, taken from a herd whose mean gestation length was 114.3 days, were assigned to one of five treatment groups: 1) control vehicle-propylene glycol, 2) 0.5 mg alfaprostol (AP) [18].
  • Eighty seven sows, taken from a herd whose mean gestation length was 116 days, were allotted at random on day 114 of gestation to one of five treatment groups as follows: (1) 175 mug prostaglandin analogue (closprostenol I.C.I. Ltd) (2) 1 mg K11941 (alfaprostol VETEM Ltd), (3) 2 mg K11941, (4) 3 mg K11941 (5) 2 ml saline (control) [19].
  • Gestation length and lamb birthweights were unaffected by melatonin [20].
  • Altrenogest started by d 110 prevented unscheduled early farrowing and increased (P less than .01) gestation length by 1.7 and 1.1 d, respectively, at UD and UM, but had not effect at BARC [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GEST


  1. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and blood pressure in mature male guinea pigs. Banjanin, S., Kapoor, A., Matthews, S.G. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Long-term effects of fluoxetine or vehicle administration during pregnancy on behavioral outcomes in guinea pig offspring. Vartazarmian, R., Malik, S., Baker, G.B., Boksa, P. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Prostaglandin induced parturition in swine with some aspects on prevention of the MMA (metritis, mastitis, agalactia) syndrome. Einarsson, S., Gustafsson, B., Larsson, K. Nordisk veterinaermedicin. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Precise timing for peak relaxin and decreased progesterone secretion after hysterectomy in the pig. Felder, K.J., Molina, J.R., Benoit, A.M., Anderson, L.L. Endocrinology (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of progesterone, mifepristone, and estrogen treatment during early pregnancy on conceptus development and uterine capacity in Swine. Vallet, J.L., Christenson, R.K. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Changes in endocrine and neurochemical profiles in neonatal pigs prenatally exposed to increased maternal cortisol. Kanitz, E., Otten, W., Tuchscherer, M. J. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Directed isolation and mapping of microsatellites from swine Chromosome 1q telomeric region through microdissection and RH mapping. Sarker, N., Hawken, R.J., Takahashi, S., Alexander, L.J., Awata, T., Schook, L.B., Yasue, H. Mamm. Genome (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. A genomic scan of porcine reproductive traits reveals possible quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for number of corpora lutea. Wilkie, P.J., Paszek, A.A., Beattie, C.W., Alexander, L.J., Wheeler, M.B., Schook, L.B. Mamm. Genome (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Macromolecule absorption and cortisol secretion in newborn calves derived from in vitro produced embryos. Jacobsen, H., Sangild, P.T., Schmidt, M., Holm, P., Greve, T., Callesen, H. Anim. Reprod. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Lactation performance of sows injected with growth hormone-releasing factor during gestation and(or) lactation. Farmer, C., Petitclerc, D., Pelletier, G., Brazeau, P. J. Anim. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Pre-weaning performance and health of pigs born to cloned (fetal cell derived) swine versus non-cloned swine. Martin, M., Adams, C., Wiseman, B. Theriogenology (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Dietary medium- or long-chain triglycerides improve body condition of lean-genotype sows and increase suckling pig growth. Gatlin, L.A., Odle, J., Soede, J., Hansent, J.A. J. Anim. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Estrous synchronization and fertility in gilts after 14- or 18-day feeding of altrenogest beginning at estrus or diestrus. Stevenson, J.S., Davis, D.L. J. Anim. Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Stress-related gene expression in brain and adrenal gland of porcine fetuses and neonates. Schwerin, M., Kanitz, E., Tuchscherer, M., Brüssow, K.P., Nürnberg, G., Otten, W. Theriogenology (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Investigations on the in vitro metabolism of five synthetic 19-norprogestins using hepatocyte suspensions isolated from five laboratory animal species. Qi-Gui, L., Ming-Da, Z., Hümpel, M. European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Heterosis and recombination effects on pig reproductive traits. Cassady, J.P., Young, L.D., Leymaster, K.A. J. Anim. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Distribution between protein-bound and free forms of plasma cortisol in the gilt and fetal pig near term. Kattesh, H.G., Baumbach, G.A., Gillespie, B.B., Schneider, J.F., Murai, J.T. Biol. Neonate (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Parturition control in sows with a prostaglandin analogue (alfaprostol). Martin, M.J., Meisinger, T.C., Flowers, W.L., Cantley, T.C., Day, B.N. Theriogenology (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Induction of parturition in the pig using a new prostaglandin analogue (K11941). Boland, M.P., Herlihy, M.J. Theriogenology (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Melatonin treatment of embryo donor and recipient ewes during anestrus affects their endocrine status, but not ovulation rate, embryo survival or pregnancy. McEvoy, T.G., Robinson, J.J., Aitken, R.P., Robertson, I.S. Theriogenology (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of altrenogest and Lutalyse on parturition control, plasma progesterone, unconjugated estrogen and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2 alpha in sows. Guthrie, H.D., Meckley, P.E., Young, E.P., Hartsock, T.G. J. Anim. Sci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of maternal starvation on some blood metabolites, liver glycogen, birth weight and survival of piglets. Ezekwe, M.O. J. Anim. Sci. (1981) [Pubmed]
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