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Gene Review

BFT  -  Average backfat thickness

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of BF

  • This genomic RD clone overlaps with a lambda-phage clone previously isolated and containing the complete BF gene and the 3' part of C2 [1].
  • Biotechnology has begun to realize the enormous potential of transgenic technology: mice with human genes that produce human proteins of therapeutic value in their milk, pigs that express bovine genes that help them gain weight and lose backfat, animals with engineered gene defects that mimic human genetic diseases [2].
  • Data from three traits common to all populations (birth weight, mean backfat depth at slaughter or end of test, and growth rate from birth to slaughter or end of test) were analyzed for individual populations and jointly [3].
  • OR and LR gilts responded similarly to feed restriction in body weight change, backfat depth and plasma traits [4].
  • Lines of swine previously selected for either high backfat (obese) or low backfat (lean) were investigated to determine the effect of maternal obesity and the relationship between serum parameters and body composition [5].

Psychiatry related information on BF

  • Neonatal cellularity furnishes a useful indicator not only of the backfat cell size at slaughter but also of the chemical factors important in determining the physical and organoleptic characteristics of porcine fat [6].

High impact information on BF

  • Furthermore, suggestive QTL affecting backfat thickness were detected on chromosomes 1 and 6 under the line-cross model [7].
  • Detection of quantitative trait loci for backfat thickness and intramuscular fat content in pigs (Sus scrofa) [7].
  • By studying associations between genotypes assigned-to individuals based on phenotypic measurements for various traits, it was concluded that cooking loss, two pH measurements and possibly backfat thickness are influenced by one gene, and that a second gene influences intramuscular fat and possibly shearforce and drip loss [8].
  • At 110 days of gestation, fetuses were removed from Ossabaw (obese-feral) sows and from sows selected for high backfat (obese-domestic) and for low backfat (lean) thickness [9].
  • Adipose tissue cellularity and histochemistry in fetal swine as affected by genetic selection for high or low backfat [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of BF

  • Dietary lysine did not affect body weight or backfat loss during lactation, sow ADFI, interval from weaning to estrus, or litter size at birth or at 21 d of age [10].
  • Positive effects of both LL and feed intake treatments were found (P < 0.05) on sow body weight loss, backfat loss, glucose concentrations, mean luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations, and LH pulse frequency prior to weaning, and farrowing-to-estrous interval [11].
  • Sow backfat loss (P < .02), litter weaning weight (P < .04), and litter weight gain from d 2 to weaning (P > .05) increased as dietary valine increased [12].
  • Rate and efficiency of weight gain, scanned backfat and longissimus area, and calculated carcass lean percentage were not different (P > 0.05) for pigs fed diets containing conventional or Roundup Ready soybean meal [13].
  • Changing dEB did not affect ADFI; water usage, litter weight gain; sow weight change; sow backfat change; percentages of CP, lactose, and fat in the milk; percentage of sows returning to estrus; days to estrus; and number of pigs born alive in the subsequent litter (P = 0.06) [14].

Biological context of BF

  • A favorable additive pleiotropic effect was detected for BF (P < .001; -.11 mm per copy of the favorable litter size allele) [15].
  • A significant genotype x treatment interaction was also observed for backfat thickness (BF) and fat, muscle, and bone development [16].
  • Heterosis values were -10.2, 8.0, 13.7, 13.6, 14.1 and 7.7% for DAYS, AJBF, ADG, WDA, WT154 and BF, respectively [17].
  • The single-trait models for DAYS and BF included the fixed effects of contemporary group, sex, and regression on inbreeding percentage and the random effects litter of birth, dam permanent environment, animal additive, and parental dominance [18].
  • Breed prenatal (genetics and prenatal maternal) effects were important for BF and WT154 (P less than .10) [17].

Anatomical context of BF


Associations of BF with chemical compounds

  • Backfat thickness (BF) was lower (P less than .005) in pGH than in C in both Exp. 1 and 2 [24].
  • The objective of this study was to estimate heritability for body length (LEN) at the end of performance testing and to estimate genetic correlations with backfat (BF) thickness and loin muscle area (LMA) in Landrace, Yorkshire, Duroc, and Hampshire breeds of swine [25].
  • Experiment 1 examined the incorporation of dietary PUFA into backfat (BF) and into the triglyceride (TG) and phospholipid (PL) fractions of the i.m. fat of the loin [26].
  • Hybridizations on genomic DNA separated with pulsed field gel electrophoresis identified common 220 kb NruI, 130 kb EagI and 200 kb MluI bands for RD, BF and C2 [1].
  • Resumption of estrous cycles in INTACT-R gilts occurred on d 116.0 +/- 4.0 and was preceded by a significant increase in WT, but not BF, and a linear increase in concentration and frequency of release of LH [27].

Other interactions of BF

  • When an animal model was fitted, both genes showed significant effects on fatness traits, the H-FABP polymorphism showed significant effects on IMF and MA, and the LEPR polymorphism on BF and IMF [28].
  • In the Duroc breed one DNA restriction fragment was associated with decreased INDEX (P less than 0.05) and decreased ADG (P less than 0.05) whereas two other fragments were associated with increased BF (P less than 0.05) [29].
  • Heritability estimates were moderate to high for ADG, USBF, USLMA, carcass BF, and LMA, percentage of LM lipid (IMF), pork tenderness, and overall acceptability [30].
  • Crossbred pigs from Yorkshire dams also had a higher ADG and slightly less BF than crossbred pigs from Duroc dams, but the differences were not significant [31].
  • Estimates of c2 from PE were .01 +/- .03 for LS, .09 +/- .02 for BF, and .19 +/- .03 for ADG [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of BF

  • Animal model and REML procedures were used to estimate random effects of animal genetic, common litter, maternal genetic, and the covariances between animal and maternal for lean growth rate (LGR), days to 113.5 kg (DAYS), backfat adjusted to 113.5 kg (BF), and loin eye area adjusted to 113.5 kg (LEA) [33].
  • The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and the secretion rate (SR) of porcine growth hormone (pGH) have been examined in swine rendered genetically either lean or obese after 18 generations of selection for or against backfat thickness [34].
  • Backfat thickness was measured by ultrasonography [35].
  • Concentrations of progesterone in the backfat of pigs during the oestrous cycle and after ovariectomy [36].
  • On average, sows targeted to gain 6 to 9 mm of backfat failed to reach target gains regardless of feeding method [37].


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  2. Transgenic mammals and biotechnology. Westphal, H. FASEB J. (1989) [Pubmed]
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  10. Supplemental lysine for sows nursing large litters. Knabe, D.A., Brendemuhl, J.H., Chiba, L.I., Dove, C.R. J. Anim. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Influence of lactation length and feed intake on reproductive performance and blood concentrations of glucose, insulin and luteinizing hormone in primiparous sows. Koketsu, Y., Dial, G.D., Pettigrew, J.E., Xue, J., Yang, H., Lucia, T. Anim. Reprod. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. The effects of branched-chain amino acids on sow and litter performance. Moser, S.A., Tokach, M.D., Dritz, S.S., Goodband, R.D., Nelssen, J.L., Loughmiller, J.A. J. Anim. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Soybean meal from roundup ready or conventional soybeans in diets for growing-finishing swine. Cromwell, G.L., Lindemann, M.D., Randolph, J.H., Parker, G.R., Coffey, R.D., Laurent, K.M., Armstrong, C.L., Mikel, W.B., Stanisiewski, E.P., Hartnell, G.F. J. Anim. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of dietary electrolyte balance on the chemistry of blood and urine in lactating sows and sow litter performance. DeRouchey, J.M., Hancock, J.D., Hines, R.H., Cummings, K.R., Lee, D.J., Maloney, C.A., Dean, D.W., Park, J.S., Cao, H. J. Anim. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of the estrogen receptor locus on reproduction and production traits in four commercial pig lines. Short, T.H., Rothschild, M.F., Southwood, O.I., McLaren, D.G., de Vries, A., van der Steen, H., Eckardt, G.R., Tuggle, C.K., Helm, J., Vaske, D.A., Mileham, A.J., Plastow, G.S. J. Anim. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of exogenous porcine somatotropin (pST) administration on growth performance, carcass traits, and pork meat quality of Meishan, Pietrain, and crossbred gilts. Bidanel, J.P., Bonneau, M., Pointillart, A., Gruand, J., Mourot, J., Demade, I. J. Anim. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Breed prenatal, breed postnatal and heterosis effects for postweaning traits in swine. Toelle, V.D., Robison, O.W. J. Anim. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Estimation of dominance variance in purebred Yorkshire swine. Culbertson, M.S., Mabry, J.W., Misztal, I., Gengler, N., Bertrand, J.K., Varona, L. J. Anim. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Free-range rearing of pigs during the winter: adaptations in muscle fiber characteristics and effects on adipose tissue composition and meat quality traits. Bee, G., Guex, G., Herzog, W. J. Anim. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Genetic correlations among fatty acid compositions in different sites of fat tissues, meat production, and meat quality traits in Duroc pigs. Suzuki, K., Ishida, M., Kadowaki, H., Shibata, T., Uchida, H., Nishida, A. J. Anim. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Analysis of properdin (BF) genotypes associated with litter size in a commercial pig cross population. Buske, B., Brunsch, C., Zeller, K., Reinecke, P., Brockmann, G. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. A variant of porcine thyroxine-binding globulin has reduced affinity for thyroxine and is associated with testis size. Nonneman, D., Rohrer, G.A., Wise, T.H., Lunstra, D.D., Ford, J.J. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Specific alterations in different adipose tissues of pig adipocyte plasma membrane structure by dietary lipids. Nicolas, C., Demarne, Y., Lecourtier, M.J., Lhuillery, C. International journal of obesity. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Reproductive and growth responses of gilts to exogenous porcine pituitary growth hormone. Bryan, K.A., Hammond, J.M., Canning, S., Mondschein, J., Carbaugh, D.E., Clark, A.M., Hagen, D.R. J. Anim. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Heritability of body length and measures of body density and their relationship to backfat thickness and loin muscle area in swine. Johnson, Z.B., Nugent, R.A. J. Anim. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Incorporation of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids into pork fatty tissues. Warnants, N., Van Oeckel, M.J., Boucqué, C.V. J. Anim. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Nutritionally-induced anestrus in gilts: metabolic and endocrine changes associated with cessation and resumption of estrous cycles. Armstrong, J.D., Britt, J.H. J. Anim. Sci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Test for positional candidate genes for body composition on pig chromosome 6. OVilo, C., Oliver, A., Noguera, J.L., Clop, A., Barragán, C., Varona, L., Rodríguez, C., Toro, M., Sánchez, A., Pérez-Enciso, M., Silió, L. Genet. Sel. Evol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Association of restriction fragment length polymorphisms of swine leucocyte antigen class I genes with production traits of Duroc and Hampshire boars. Jung, Y.C., Rothschild, M.F., Flanagan, M.P., Christian, L.L., Warner, C.M. Anim. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Genetic analyses of growth, real-time ultrasound, carcass, and pork quality traits in Duroc and Landrace pigs: II. Heritabilities and correlations. Lo, L.L., McLaren, D.G., McKeith, F.K., Fernando, R.L., Novakofski, J. J. Anim. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Performance of selected and control lines of Duroc and Yorkshire pigs and their reciprocal crossbred progeny. Bereskin, B. J. Anim. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  32. Comparison of methods of estimating variance components in pigs. Keele, J.W., Long, T.E., Johnson, R.K. J. Anim. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Genetic parameters and trends for lean growth rate and its comvonents in U.S. Yorkshire, Duroc, Hampshire, and Landrace pigs. Chen, P., Baas, T.J., Mabry, J.W., Dekkers, J.C., Koehler, K.J. J. Anim. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Metabolic clearance and secretion rates of porcine growth hormone in genetically lean and obese swine. Althen, T.G., Gerrits, R.J. Endocrinology (1976) [Pubmed]
  35. Dietary fat saturation and endurance exercise alter lipolytic sensitivity of adipocytes isolated from Yucatan miniature swine. Meservey, C.M., Carey, G.B. J. Nutr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  36. Concentrations of progesterone in the backfat of pigs during the oestrous cycle and after ovariectomy. Hillbrand, F.W., Elsaesser, F. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1983) [Pubmed]
  37. Comparison of three methods of feeding sows in gestation and the subsequent effects on lactation performance. Young, M.G., Tokach, M.D., Aherne, F.X., Main, R.G., Dritz, S.S., Goodband, R.D., Nelssen, J.L. J. Anim. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
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