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Gene Review

IL17D  -  interleukin 17D

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: FLJ30846, IL-17D, IL-22, IL-27, IL27, ...
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Disease relevance of IL17D


High impact information on IL17D

  • In this issue of Immunity, IL-27 is described, which acts in synergy with IL-12 early in Th1 development from naive T cells via the receptor TCCR/WSX-1 [4].
  • We further demonstrate that IL-22 was coexpressed in vitro and in vivo with both IL-17A and IL-17F [5].
  • To study a functional relationship among these cytokines, we examined the expression of antimicrobial peptides by primary keratinocytes treated with combinations of IL-22, IL-17A, and IL-17F [5].
  • The subsequent expansion of IL-22-producing cells was dependent on IL-23 [5].
  • We demonstrate that Th17 cells also expressed IL-22, an IL-10 family member, at substantially higher amounts than T helper (Th)1 or Th2 cells [5].

Biological context of IL17D

  • Collectively, we have identified IL-22 as a new cytokine expressed by Th17 cells that synergizes with IL-17A or IL-17F to regulate genes associated with skin innate immunity [5].
  • The structural composition of these genes shows two introns and three exons except for IL-17D gene that has only one intron and two exons [6].

Anatomical context of IL17D


Regulatory relationships of IL17D

  • For example, the discovery of IL-27 has greatly improved our understanding of the factors regulating the polarization of the T helper cell responses and IL-31 appears to be an important regulator of Th2 responses [11].

Other interactions of IL17D

  • Similar to IL-17A, IL-22 expression was initiated by transforming growth factor beta signaling in the context of IL-6 and other proinflammatory cytokines [5].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IL17D

  • A novel cytokine termed IL-17D was cloned using nested RACE PCR [7].
  • METHODS: Expression of IL-22 and IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis [9].
  • Expression of IL-22 and IL-22R1 in RASF was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis [9].
  • IL-22 and IL-17 were found to be coordinately regulated by TGFbeta and IL-6 during TH differentiation by real-time PCR as well as ELISA analysis [3].


  1. Commensal Gram-negative bacteria prime human dendritic cells for enhanced IL-23 and IL-27 expression and enhanced Th1 development. Smits, H.H., van Beelen, A.J., Hessle, C., Westland, R., de Jong, E., Soeteman, E., Wold, A., Wierenga, E.A., Kapsenberg, M.L. Eur. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. WSX-1 plays a significant role for the initiation of experimental autoimmune uveitis. Sonoda, K.H., Yoshimura, T., Takeda, A., Ishibashi, T., Hamano, S., Yoshida, H. Int. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression and regulation of IL-22 in the IL-17-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes. Chung, Y., Yang, X., Chang, S.H., Ma, L., Tian, Q., Dong, C. Cell Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Further checkpoints in Th1 development. Robinson, D.S., O'Garra, A. Immunity (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Interleukin (IL)-22 and IL-17 are coexpressed by Th17 cells and cooperatively enhance expression of antimicrobial peptides. Liang, S.C., Tan, X.Y., Luxenberg, D.P., Karim, R., Dunussi-Joannopoulos, K., Collins, M., Fouser, L.A. J. Exp. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification, cloning and characterization of interleukin-17 and its family from zebrafish. Gunimaladevi, I., Savan, R., Sakai, M. Fish Shellfish Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Cutting edge: IL-17D, a novel member of the IL-17 family, stimulates cytokine production and inhibits hemopoiesis. Starnes, T., Broxmeyer, H.E., Robertson, M.J., Hromas, R. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. EBV-induced gene 3 transcription is induced by TLR signaling in primary dendritic cells via NF-kappa B activation. Wirtz, S., Becker, C., Fantini, M.C., Nieuwenhuis, E.E., Tubbe, I., Galle, P.R., Schild, H.J., Birkenbach, M., Blumberg, R.S., Neurath, M.F. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of interleukin-22 in rheumatoid arthritis: potential role as a proinflammatory cytokine. Ikeuchi, H., Kuroiwa, T., Hiramatsu, N., Kaneko, Y., Hiromura, K., Ueki, K., Nojima, Y. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Nectin-like protein 2 defines a subset of T-cell zone dendritic cells and is a ligand for class-I-restricted T-cell-associated molecule. Galibert, L., Diemer, G.S., Liu, Z., Johnson, R.S., Smith, J.L., Walzer, T., Comeau, M.R., Rauch, C.T., Wolfson, M.F., Sorensen, R.A., Van der Vuurst de Vries, A.R., Branstetter, D.G., Koelling, R.M., Scholler, J., Fanslow, W.C., Baum, P.R., Derry, J.M., Yan, W. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. The newest interleukins: recent additions to the ever-growing cytokine family. Chen, Q., Carroll, H.P., Gadina, M. Vitam. Horm. (2006) [Pubmed]
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