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Gene Review

Set  -  SET nuclear oncogene

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 2610030F17Rik, 5730420M11Rik, AA407739, I-2PP2A, Phosphatase 2A inhibitor I2PP2A, ...
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Disease relevance of Set

  • Activation of the Set 2 transcription unit(s) is more restricted, being confined to cell lines transformed by SV40 and retroviruses with distinctive biological properties [1].
  • Slide Set II contained 4 human lines: one lung cancer, one melanoma, and two fibroblast lines [2].
  • To identify molecular targets associated with this disease process, hindlimb cDNA expression profiles were created from adductor muscle of Lepr(db/db) and WT mice before and after hindlimb ischemia using Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Expression Set microarrays [3].
  • Liver TAFI mRNA and TAFI protein concentrations increased during sepsis [4].
  • To determine the role of TAFI in the hemostatic and innate immune response to abdominal sepsis, TAFI gene-deficient (TAFI-/-) and normal wild-type mice received an i.p. injection with Escherichia coli [4].

High impact information on Set

  • Clones of Set 1 contain a dispersed repetitive element present thousands of times in the mouse genome [5].
  • Data from microarray studies of the original and resistant NF639 populations of cells were subjected to Gene Set Enrichment Analysis pathway assessment, which revealed that the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway was activated in the resistant cells [6].
  • Using this high throughput 96-well plate assay, we identified JSI-124 (cucurbitacin I) from the National Cancer Institute Diversity Set [7].
  • In a targeted exploration of the FANTOM2-Variable Protein Set, a number of mouse homologs to known cell-cycle regulators as well as novel members of cell-cycle families were identified [8].
  • In addition, TAFI is able to inactivate inflammatory peptides such as complement factors C3a and C5a [4].

Biological context of Set

  • Expression of Set-alpha during morphogenesis of mouse lower first molar [9].
  • Previously we showed that Set-alpha is a differentially expressed gene in the embryonic mouse mandible at day 10.5 (E10.5) gestational age [9].
  • We have now determined the nucleotide sequence of the archetypal Set 2 clone, pAG59, and can thus identify it as corresponding to the env gene of the endogenous, ecotropic C-type retrovirus of Balb/c mice, Emv-1 [10].
  • The gene expression profile was determined by the mouse Expression Set 430A GeneChip.RESULTS: By comparison between db/m and db/db mice, 649 probes that increased in expression with the induction of diabetes and 340 probes that decreased in diabetic kidneys were identified [11].
  • In contrast to the presumptive role of TAFI as a natural inhibitor of fibrinolysis, TAFI-/- mice did not show any difference in E. coli-induced activation of coagulation or fibrinolysis, as measured by plasma levels of thrombin-anti-thrombin complexes and D-dimer and the extent of fibrin depositions in lung and liver tissues [4].

Anatomical context of Set

  • At E13.5, Set-alpha was strongly expressed in the tooth germ [9].
  • At the cap stage, Set-alpha was expressed in the enamel organ and dental papilla [9].
  • At the bell stage, Set-alpha was distinctly expressed in the inner enamel epithelial and dental papilla cells facing the inner enamel epithelial layer, which were intended to differentiate into ameloblasts and odontoblasts, respectively [9].
  • Interestingly, Set-alpha was also expressed in several embryonic craniofacial tissues derived from the ectoderm [9].
  • Furthermore, TAFI-/- mice displayed an altered immune response to sepsis, as indicated by an increased neutrophil recruitment to the peritoneal cavity and a transiently increased bacterial outgrowth together with higher plasma TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels [4].

Other interactions of Set

  • Preparation of a Set of Expression-Ready Clones of Mammalian Long cDNAs Encoding Large Proteins by the ORF Trap Cloning Method [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Set

  • STUDY DESIGN: Set specimens from four sealers (AH26, Apexit, Sealapex, N2) as well as gutta-percha were eluted with cell culture medium for 24 hours, 5 days, 5 days, and 24 hours, respectively [13].
  • The same four samples were assayed on Affymetrix Mouse Genome Expression Set 430 GeneChips (MOE430A and MOE430B), spotted cDNA microarrays, and spotted oligonucleotide microarrays using eight arrays of each type [14].
  • 46 sera with variable IFAT titres were tested with ELISA Reagent Set and microtitration tests [15].


  1. Activation of mouse genes in transformed cells. Scott, M.R., Westphal, K.H., Rigby, P.W. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Cytomorphologic evaluation of the neoplastic potential of 28 cell culture lines by a panel of diagnostic cytopathologists. Boone, C.W., Sanford, K.K., Frost, J.K., Mantel, N., Gill, G.W., Jones, G.M. Int. J. Cancer (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Impaired revascularization in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes is associated with dysregulation of a complex angiogenic-regulatory network. Schiekofer, S., Galasso, G., Sato, K., Kraus, B.J., Walsh, K. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Absence of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor protects against sepsis-induced liver injury in mice. Renckens, R., Roelofs, J.J., ter Horst, S.A., van 't Veer, C., Havik, S.R., Florquin, S., Wagenaar, G.T., Meijers, J.C., van der Poll, T. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Transcripts regulated during normal embryonic development and oncogenic transformation share a repetitive element. Murphy, D., Brickell, P.M., Latchman, D.S., Willison, K., Rigby, P.W. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Microarray-assisted pathway analysis identifies mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling as a mediator of resistance to the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin 3-gallate in her-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Guo, S., Lu, J., Subramanian, A., Sonenshein, G.E. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Discovery of JSI-124 (cucurbitacin I), a selective Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway inhibitor with potent antitumor activity against human and murine cancer cells in mice. Blaskovich, M.A., Sun, J., Cantor, A., Turkson, J., Jove, R., Sebti, S.M. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Exploration of the cell-cycle genes found within the RIKEN FANTOM2 data set. Forrest, A.R., Taylor, D., Grimmond, S. Genome Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of Set-alpha during morphogenesis of mouse lower first molar. Yamaza, H., Matsuo, K., Kobayashi, I., Wada, H., Kiyoshima, T., Akhtar, M., Ishibashi, Y., Sakai, T., Akamine, A., Sakai, H. Histochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Activation of endogenous retroviral transcription in SV40-transformed mouse cells. Timmons, P.M., Brickell, P.M., Latchman, D.S., Rigby, P.W. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Laser capture microdissection/GeneChip analysis of gene expression in glomerular cells in diabetic db/db mice. Naito, Y., Uchiyama, K., Kuroda, M., Mizushima, K., Aoi, W., Kokura, S., Ichikawa, H., Yoshida, N., Yoshikawa, T. Redox Rep. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Preparation of a Set of Expression-Ready Clones of Mammalian Long cDNAs Encoding Large Proteins by the ORF Trap Cloning Method. Nakajima, D., Saito, K., Yamakawa, H., Kikuno, R.F., Nakayama, M., Ohara, R., Okazaki, N., Koga, H., Nagase, T., Ohara, O. DNA Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Cytotoxicity of four root canal sealers in permanent 3T3 cells and primary human periodontal ligament fibroblast cultures. Geurtsen, W., Leinenbach, F., Krage, T., Leyhausen, G. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. A comparison of cDNA, oligonucleotide, and Affymetrix GeneChip gene expression microarray platforms. Woo, Y., Affourtit, J., Daigle, S., Viale, A., Johnson, K., Naggert, J., Churchill, G. Journal of biomolecular techniques : JBT. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Evaluations of antibody levels in Toxoplasma infection by the immunofluorescent antibody test and ELISA test. Azab, M.E., Rifaat, M.A., Khalil, H.M., Safer, E.H., Nabaweya, M.K. Folia Parasitol. (1983) [Pubmed]
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