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Gene Review

CA10  -  carbonic anhydrase X

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CA-RP X, CA-RPX, CARP X, CARPX, Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 10, ...
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Disease relevance of CA10

  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred ninety-nine breast cancer patients were prospectively randomized to receive either five cycles (CA5) or 10 cycles (CA10) of adjuvant treatment with cyclophosphamide (500 mg/ m2) and doxorubicin (45 mg/m2) administered by intravenous bolus every 21 days [1].
  • These T cell lines also exhibited cross-reactivity with gp120 from T cell line-adapted HIV-1 strains IIIB and MN, as well as with gp120 from primary isolates SF33 (subtype B), CA1 (subtype A), and CA10 (subtype A/E) [2].
  • The carbazole catabolic car operons from Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 and Janthinobacterium sp. J3 have nearly identical nucleotide sequences in their structural and intergenic regions but not in their flanking regions [3].
  • Southern hybridization analyses showed that 3 and 17 isolates possessed the car gene homologs of Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 and Sphingomonas sp. strain KA1, respectively [4].
  • METHODS: Children age 6 to 36 months with acute otitis media with effusion, diagnosed by tympanocentesis and microbiologic culture, were randomized to receive CAE (30 mg/kg/day in two divided doses for 5 days) or A/CA 40 mg/kg/day in three divided doses for 10 days (A/CA-10) [5].

High impact information on CA10


Biological context of CA10

  • Sequencing analysis showed that two car operons and the neighboring regions of Pseudomonas sp. strain K23 are nearly identical to that of strain CA10 [10].
  • Southern hybridization analysis of the genomes from the newly-isolated 10 carbazole (CAR)-utilizing bacteria revealed that 8 of the isolates carried gene clusters homologous to the CAR-catabolic car operon of Pseudomonas resinovorans strain CA10 [10].

Anatomical context of CA10

  • RNA dot blotting showed significant signals for CA-RP X and XI mRNA expressions in the adult total brain and almost all parts of the central nervous system, but no expression in the fetal brain [11].
  • Thirty-seven patients with clinical HFMD were virologically and serologically examined, and Coxsackie virus A10 (CA10) was isolated in 18 patients from vesicles (7/16), throat-swabs (9/31) and feces (6/7) [12].
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results show that CA 10 mg/day is a powerful progestin compared to MP 200 mg/day, on weakly estradiol-primed endometria, giving a molecule-specific histological aspect with a good endometrial safety [9].
  • However, low-molecular-weight CA 125, i.e. ascites fractions CA 17/E, CA 17/F and CA 10/7, did show differences in certain assay combinations and cross-inhibition patterns which probably can be explained by steric effects due to the smaller size compared with the most abundant forms of CA 125 present in serum and other body fluids [13].

Associations of CA10 with chemical compounds

  • Similar to CA-RP XI, CA-RP X lacked two out of three zinc-liganded histidine residues, suggesting no biological activity of CA [11].
  • In this work we examine the solution behavior of the beta anomer of maltose and cyclohexa-, cyclohepta-, and cyclooctaamyloses (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins or alpha-, beta-, and gamma-CDs, respectively), as well as of two larger (DP 10, epsilon-CD; DP 21) cyclomaltooligosaccharides, CA10 and CA21 [14].

Other interactions of CA10


  1. Cardiac effects of adjuvant doxorubicin and radiation therapy in breast cancer patients. Shapiro, C.L., Hardenbergh, P.H., Gelman, R., Blanks, D., Hauptman, P., Recht, A., Hayes, D.F., Harris, J., Henderson, I.C. J. Clin. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Propagation of CD4+ T cells specific for HIV type 1 envelope gp120 from chronically HIV type 1-infected subjects. Cohen, S., Tuen, M., Hioe, C.E. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Differentiation of carbazole catabolic operons by replacement of the regulated promoter via transposition of an insertion sequence. Miyakoshi, M., Urata, M., Habe, H., Omori, T., Yamane, H., Nojiri, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Diversity of carbazole-degrading bacteria having the car gene cluster: isolation of a novel gram-positive carbazole-degrading bacterium. Inoue, K., Habe, H., Yamane, H., Omori, T., Nojiri, H. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Short course therapy with cefuroxime axetil for acute otitis media: results of a randomized multicenter comparison with amoxicillin/clavulanate. Pessey, J.J., Gehanno, P., Thoroddsen, E., Dagan, R., Leibovitz, E., Machac, J., Pimentel, J.M., Marr, C., Leblanc, F. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of the Replication, Maintenance, and Transfer Features of the IncP-7 Plasmid pCAR1, Which Carries Genes Involved in Carbazole and Dioxin Degradation. Shintani, M., Yano, H., Habe, H., Omori, T., Yamane, H., Tsuda, M., Nojiri, H. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Plasmid pCAR3 Contains Multiple Gene Sets Involved in the Conversion of Carbazole to Anthranilate. Urata, M., Uchimura, H., Noguchi, H., Sakaguchi, T., Takemura, T., Eto, K., Habe, H., Omori, T., Yamane, H., Nojiri, H. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Developmental expression of carbonic anhydrase-related proteins VIII, X, and XI in the human brain. Taniuchi, K., Nishimori, I., Takeuchi, T., Fujikawa-Adachi, K., Ohtsuki, Y., Onishi, S. Neuroscience (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Comparative endometrial histology in postmenopausal women with sequential hormone replacement therapy of estradiol and, either chlormadinone acetate or micronized progesterone. Jondet, M., Maroni, M., Yaneva, H., Brin, S., Peltier-Pujol, F., Pélissier, C. Maturitas. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Divergent structures of carbazole degradative car operons isolated from gram-negative bacteria. Inoue, K., Widada, J., Nakai, S., Endoh, T., Urata, M., Ashikawa, Y., Shintani, M., Saiki, Y., Yoshida, T., Habe, H., Omori, T., Nojiri, H. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. cDNA sequence of human carbonic anhydrase-related protein, CA-RP X: mRNA expressions of CA-RP X and XI in human brain. Okamoto, N., Fujikawa-Adachi, K., Nishimori, I., Taniuchi, K., Onishi, S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. A clustering outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by Coxsackie virus A10. Itagaki, A., Ishihara, J., Mochida, K., Ito, Y., Saito, K., Nishino, Y., Koike, S., Kurimura, T. Microbiol. Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Epitopes on CA 125 from cervical mucus and ascites fluid and characterization of six new antibodies. Third report from the ISOBM TD-1 workshop. Nustad, K., Lebedin, Y., Lloyd, K.O., Shigemasa, K., de Bruijn, H.W., Jansson, B., Nilsson, O., Olsen, K.H., O'Brien, T.J. Tumour Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Computational studies on carbohydrates: solvation studies on maltose and cyclomaltooligosaccharides (cyclodextrins) using a DFT/ab initio-derived empirical force field, AMB99C. Momany, F.A., Willett, J.L. Carbohydr. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
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