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Chemical Compound Review

AGN-PC-00HRES     17-ethanoyl-10,13-dimethyl- 1,2,6,7,8,9,11...

Synonyms: NORIT A(R), SureCN5021330, KST-1A2656, BBL005654, CTK8H9581, ...
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Disease relevance of progesterone


Psychiatry related information on progesterone


High impact information on progesterone

  • When ERT is contraindicated, viable alternatives to retard bone loss and/or control vasomotor symptoms include calcium supplementation and progestin therapy [11].
  • Transvaginal ultrasonography compared with endometrial biopsy for the detection of endometrial disease. Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions Trial [12].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Conjugated estrogen, alone or combined with progestin therapy, reduced PAI-1 levels by approximately 50 percent in postmenopausal women and was associated with enhanced systemic fibrinolysis [13].
  • Progestin-only formulations had only minor metabolic effects [2].
  • Regardless of the preparation and dosage of the estrogen and progestin used, wholly or predominantly proliferative endometrium was always associated with bleeding on or before day 10 after the addition of progestin; wholly or predominantly secretory endometrium, or a lack of endometrial tissue, was associated with bleeding on day 11 or later [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of progesterone


Biological context of progesterone


Anatomical context of progesterone

  • We conclude that the bleeding pattern reflected the histologic condition of the endometrium and that adjustment of the dosage of progestin so that regular bleeding is induced on or after day 11 may obviate the need for endometrial biopsy [14].
  • Oestradiol, sexual receptivity and cytosol progestin receptors in rat hypothalamus [23].
  • The progestin receptor was induced only in 4-day E2-treated rats and in DES-T. cAMP binding was stimulated in cytosol from 4-day E2-treated rats and in DES-T, but a significant reduction in binding was also noted in nuclear extracts from DES-T [24].
  • The apoptotic index of the ovarian epithelium was highly associated with the change in expression from TGF-beta1 (P<.001) to TGF-beta2/3 (P</=.002) induced by progestin treatment [25].
  • In a clone of MCF7 cells, another human mammary tumour cell line with a low level of progesterone receptor, as well as in rat fibroblasts, glucocorticoid but not progestin induction is observed [26].

Associations of progesterone with other chemical compounds


Gene context of progesterone

  • Coexpression of the SCP2 cDNA with expression vectors for cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme and adrenodoxin resulted in a 2.5-fold enhancement of progestin synthesis over that obtained with expression of the steroidogenic enzyme system alone [31].
  • Ectopic expression of cyclin D1 in progestin-inhibited cells led to the reappearance of the 120-kDa active form of cyclin E-Cdk2 preceding the resumption of cell cycle progression [32].
  • Similarly, overexpression of activated mutant CDK2 increased PR transcriptional activity in the absence and presence of progestin [33].
  • Thus, decreased cyclin expression and consequent increased CDK inhibitor association are likely to mediate the decreases in CDK activity accompanying progestin-mediated growth inhibition [32].
  • However, an increase in the expression of the Cdk4/6 inhibitor p18(INK4c) and its extensive association with Cdk4 and Cdk6 were apparent following progestin treatment [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of progesterone

  • For women who received sequential estrogen-progestin replacement therapy with the progestin given for less than 10 days (effectively 7 days) per month, the adjusted OR was only slightly reduced to 1.87 (95% CI = 1.32-2.65) per 5 years of use (74 case subjects and 47 control subjects) [35].
  • Attenuation of heart-rate variability in postmenopausal women on progestin-containing hormone replacement therapy [36].
  • The positive predictive value of cervical smears in previously screened postmenopausal women: the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) [37].
  • The present study retrospectively analyzed and compared hearing abilities among 124 postmenopausal women taking HRT, treated with estrogen and progestin (E+P; n = 32), estrogen alone (E; n = 30), and a third [non-hormone replacement therapy (NHRT; n = 62)] control group [38].
  • Changes in receptor abundance in response to hormones and at various stages of oocyte development, its probable coupling to an inhibitory G protein and inhibition of progestin induction of oocyte maturation upon microinjection of antisense oligonucleotides are consistent with the identity of the receptor as an intermediary in oocyte maturation [39].


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  10. Olanzapine's effects to reduce fear and anxiety and enhance social interactions coincide with increased progestin concentrations of ovariectomized rats. Frye, C.A., Seliga, A.M. Psychoneuroendocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
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  12. Transvaginal ultrasonography compared with endometrial biopsy for the detection of endometrial disease. Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions Trial. Langer, R.D., Pierce, J.J., O'Hanlan, K.A., Johnson, S.R., Espeland, M.A., Trabal, J.F., Barnabei, V.M., Merino, M.J., Scully, R.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of hormone-replacement therapy on fibrinolysis in postmenopausal women. Koh, K.K., Mincemoyer, R., Bui, M.N., Csako, G., Pucino, F., Guetta, V., Waclawiw, M., Cannon, R.O. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. A simple method for determining the optimal dosage of progestin in postmenopausal women receiving estrogens. Padwick, M.L., Pryse-Davies, J., Whitehead, M.I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Heregulin induces transcriptional activation of the progesterone receptor by a mechanism that requires functional ErbB-2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in breast cancer cells. Labriola, L., Salatino, M., Proietti, C.J., Pecci, A., Coso, O.A., Kornblihtt, A.R., Charreau, E.H., Elizalde, P.V. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Mating-related stimulation induces phosphorylation of dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein-32 in progestin receptor-containing areas in the female rat brain. Meredith, J.M., Moffatt, C.A., Auger, A.P., Snyder, G.L., Greengard, P., Blaustein, J.D. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
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  22. Estrogen and progestin, lipoprotein(a), and the risk of recurrent coronary heart disease events after menopause. Shlipak, M.G., Simon, J.A., Vittinghoff, E., Lin, F., Barrett-Connor, E., Knopp, R.H., Levy, R.I., Hulley, S.B. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Oestradiol, sexual receptivity and cytosol progestin receptors in rat hypothalamus. Parsons, B., Rainbow, T.C., Pfaff, D.W., McEwen, B.S. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
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  25. Progestin-induced apoptosis in the Macaque ovarian epithelium: differential regulation of transforming growth factor-beta. Rodriguez, G.C., Nagarsheth, N.P., Lee, K.L., Bentley, R.C., Walmer, D.K., Cline, M., Whitaker, R.S., Isner, P., Berchuck, A., Dodge, R.K., Hughes, C.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
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