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Gene Review

TXK  -  TXK tyrosine kinase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BTKL, PSCTK5, PTK4, Protein-tyrosine kinase 4, RLK, ...
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Disease relevance of TXK

  • In Medicago truncatula, specific recognition of Sinorhizobium meliloti and its Nod factors requires the NFP (Nod factor perception) gene, which encodes a putative serine/threonine receptor-like kinase (RLK) [1].
  • Mobiluncus species were isolated on enriched Schaedler agar and RLK agar plates under anaerobic conditions [2].

High impact information on TXK

  • The distribution pattern of four RLK subfamilies on Arabidopsis chromosomes indicates that the expansion of this gene family is partly a consequence of duplication and reshuffling of the Arabidopsis genome and of the generation of tandem repeats [3].
  • A survey of expressed sequence tag records for land plants reveals that mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants have similar percentages of expressed sequence tags representing RLK/Pelle homologs, suggesting that the size of this gene family may have been close to the present-day level before the diversification of land plant lineages [3].
  • rlk/TXK encodes two forms of a novel cysteine string tyrosine kinase activated by Src family kinases [4].
  • TXK expression is detected primarily in T cells and some myeloid cell lines but not in a number of other cell types [5].
  • A gene for a novel, putative cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, TXK has been isolated from a human peripheral blood cDNA library [5].

Biological context of TXK

  • Genomic clones containing TXK have been isolated and hybridize to chromosome position 4p12 [5].
  • In contrast to other plant RLK, the kinase used an intra- rather than an intermolecular phosphorylation mechanism [6].
  • More than 33% of the RLK/Pelle members are found in tandem clusters, substantially higher than the genome average [7].
  • The RLK/Pelle family can be divided into several subfamilies based on three independent criteria: the phylogeny based on kinase domain sequences, the extracellular domain identities, and intron locations and phases [7].
  • Taken together, these results strongly suggested the involvement of this LRR-RLK in regulation of soybean leaf senescence, maybe via regulating chloroplast development and chlorophyll accumulation [8].

Anatomical context of TXK


Associations of TXK with chemical compounds

  • The sequence surrounding the phosphorylatable serine in this consensus motif was similar to the analogous sequence K/RXXS/TXK/R proposed for mammalian PKC, but different from the consensus motif RRXS/TX for PKA [10].
  • Here, we provide further evidence for this by showing that NFP is a lysine motif (LysM)-receptor-like kinase (RLK) [11].
  • The third RLK gene contains an extracellular domain that consists of 21 leucine-rich repeats that are analogous to the leucine-rich repeats found in proteins from humans, flies and yeast [12].
  • We report here the cloning and characterization of a soybean receptor-like kinase (RLK) gene, designated GmSARK (Glycine max senescence-associated receptor-like kinase), which is involved in regulating leaf senescence [8].
  • A receptor-like protein kinase (RLK) cDNA clone from the C4 plant Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench has been identified [13].

Other interactions of TXK

  • PTK4 and TYRO4, which encode nonreceptor intracellular PTKs, are located at 4p12 and 4q13, respectively [14].


  1. LysM domains of Medicago truncatula NFP protein involved in Nod factor perception. Glycosylation state, molecular modeling and docking of chitooligosaccharides and Nod factors. Mulder, L., Lefebvre, B., Cullimore, J., Imberty, A. Glycobiology (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Mobiluncus species in gynaecological and obstetric infections: antimicrobial resistance and prevalence in a Turkish population. Bahar, H., Torun, M.M., Oçer, F., Kocazeybek, B. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Receptor-like kinases from Arabidopsis form a monophyletic gene family related to animal receptor kinases. Shiu, S.H., Bleecker, A.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. rlk/TXK encodes two forms of a novel cysteine string tyrosine kinase activated by Src family kinases. Debnath, J., Chamorro, M., Czar, M.J., Schaeffer, E.M., Lenardo, M.J., Varmus, H.E., Schwartzberg, P.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. TXK, a novel human tyrosine kinase expressed in T cells shares sequence identity with Tec family kinases and maps to 4p12. Haire, R.N., Ohta, Y., Lewis, J.E., Fu, S.M., Kroisel, P., Litman, G.W. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Novel type of receptor-like protein kinase from a higher plant (Catharanthus roseus). cDNA, gene, intramolecular autophosphorylation, and identification of a threonine important for auto- and substrate phosphorylation. Schulze-Muth, P., Irmler, S., Schröder, G., Schröder, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Expansion of the receptor-like kinase/Pelle gene family and receptor-like proteins in Arabidopsis. Shiu, S.H., Bleecker, A.B. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification and functional characterization of a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase gene that is involved in regulation of soybean leaf senescence. Li, X.P., Gan, R., Li, P.L., Ma, Y.Y., Zhang, L.W., Zhang, R., Wang, Y., Wang, N.N. Plant Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Coronary vasomotor dysfunction in the cardiac allograft: impact of different immunosuppressive regimens. Weis, M., Wildhirt, S.M., Schulze, C., Pehlivanli, S., Rieder, G., Wolf, W.P., Wilbert-Lampen, U., Meiser, B.M., Enders, G., von Scheidt, W. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Peptide phosphorylation by calcium-dependent protein kinase from maize seedlings. Loog, M., Toomik, R., Sak, K., Muszynska, G., Järv, J., Ek, P. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. The Medicago truncatula Lysine Motif-Receptor-Like Kinase Gene Family Includes NFP and New Nodule-Expressed Genes. Arrighi, J.F., Barre, A., Ben Amor, B., Bersoult, A., Soriano, L.C., Mirabella, R., de Carvalho-Niebel, F., Journet, E.P., Ghérardi, M., Huguet, T., Geurts, R., Dénarié, J., Rougé, P., Gough, C. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Receptor-like protein kinase genes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Walker, J.C. Plant J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. SbRLK1, a receptor-like protein kinase of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench that is expressed in mesophyll cells. Annen, F., Stockhaus, J. Planta (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. A YAC contig spanning a cluster of human type III receptor protein tyrosine kinase genes (PDGFRA-KIT-KDR) in chromosome segment 4q12. Spritz, R.A., Strunk, K.M., Lee, S.T., Lu-Kuo, J.M., Ward, D.C., Le Paslier, D., Altherr, M.R., Dorman, T.E., Moir, D.T. Genomics (1994) [Pubmed]
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