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Chemical Compound Review

Immuran     6-(3-methyl-5-nitro-imidazol- 4-yl)sulfanyl...

Synonyms: Azamun, Azanin, Azasan, Azatioprin, Imuran, ...
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Disease relevance of Imurel


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High impact information on Imurel

  • METHODS: We administered daclizumab (1.0 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo intravenously before transplantation and once every other week afterward, for a total of five doses, to 260 patients receiving first cadaveric kidney grafts and immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisone [11].
  • With the higher dose of azathioprine, four patients had myelosuppression, defined as a decrease in the leukocyte and platelet counts to less than 4000 and 150,000 per cubic millimeter, respectively [3].
  • Lymphopenia developed in 32 of 56 patients treated with 2 mg of azathioprine per kilogram per day for more than two years [3].
  • We prospectively studied the magnitude, distribution, and mechanism of bone loss in 20 adults who received renal allografts from living related donors, who had good renal function, and who were treated with azathioprine, cyclosporine, and low doses of prednisone [12].
  • There were fewer episodes of hypopyon uveitis (1 vs. 15; P less than 0.001) among the group 2 patients who took azathioprine [4].

Chemical compound and disease context of Imurel


Biological context of Imurel


Anatomical context of Imurel


Associations of Imurel with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Imurel


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Imurel


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  11. Interleukin-2-receptor blockade with daclizumab to prevent acute rejection in renal transplantation. Daclizumab Triple Therapy Study Group. Vincenti, F., Kirkman, R., Light, S., Bumgardner, G., Pescovitz, M., Halloran, P., Neylan, J., Wilkinson, A., Ekberg, H., Gaston, R., Backman, L., Burdick, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
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  15. Lack of effect of intravenous administration on time to respond to azathioprine for steroid-treated Crohn's disease. North American Azathioprine Study Group. Sandborn, W.J., Tremaine, W.J., Wolf, D.C., Targan, S.R., Sninsky, C.A., Sutherland, L.R., Hanauer, S.B., McDonald, J.W., Feagan, B.G., Fedorak, R.N., Isaacs, K.L., Pike, M.G., Mays, D.C., Lipsky, J.J., Gordon, S., Kleoudis, C.S., Murdock, R.H. Gastroenterology (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Azathioprine and mesalamine for prevention of relapse after conservative surgery for Crohn's disease. Ardizzone, S., Maconi, G., Sampietro, G.M., Russo, A., Radice, E., Colombo, E., Imbesi, V., Molteni, M., Danelli, P.G., Taschieri, A.M., Bianchi Porro, G. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. The effect of azathioprine (Imuran) on the cell cycle of promonocytes and the production of monocytes in the bone marrow. van Furth, R., Gassmann, A.E., Diesselhoff-Den Dulk, M.M. J. Exp. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  18. CD28-dependent Rac1 activation is the molecular target of azathioprine in primary human CD4+ T lymphocytes. Tiede, I., Fritz, G., Strand, S., Poppe, D., Dvorsky, R., Strand, D., Lehr, H.A., Wirtz, S., Becker, C., Atreya, R., Mudter, J., Hildner, K., Bartsch, B., Holtmann, M., Blumberg, R., Walczak, H., Iven, H., Galle, P.R., Ahmadian, M.R., Neurath, M.F. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Beneficial effects of conversion from cyclosporin to azathioprine after kidney transplantation. Hollander, A.A., van Saase, J.L., Kootte, A.M., van Dorp, W.T., van Bockel, H.J., van Es, L.A., van der Woude, F.J. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Azathioprine-induced pure red blood cell aplasia. Old, C.W., Flannery, E.P., Grogan, T.M., Stone, W.H., San Antonio, R.P. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  21. Lymphocyte antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus: studies with heterologous antisera. Williams, R.C., Hughes, G.R., Snaith, M.L., Parry, H.F., Diao, E., Greaves, M.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Azathioprine treatment increases hepatocyte turnover. Arber, N., Zajicek, G., Nordenberg, J., Sidi, Y. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Stability of renal transplant function with alternate-day corticosteroid therapy. Breitenfield, R.V., Hebert, L.A., Lemann, J., Piering, W.F., Kauffman, H.M., Sampson, D., Kalbfleisch, J., Beres, J.A. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Immunosuppression with a combination of cyclosporin, azathioprine, and prednisolone may be unsafe. Salaman, J.R., Griffin, P.J. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Corticosteroids and immunomodulators: postoperative infectious complication risk in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Aberra, F.N., Lewis, J.D., Hass, D., Rombeau, J.L., Osborne, B., Lichtenstein, G.R. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Conversion from cyclosporin to azathioprine after kidney transplantation. Kronenberg, F., Königsrainer, A., Lhotta, K., Margreiter, R., Dieplinger, H., König, P. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Optimizing anti-TNF treatment in inflammatory bowel disease. Rutgeerts, P., Van Assche, G., Vermeire, S. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Mycophenolate mofetil versus azathioprine for prevention of chronic allograft dysfunction in renal transplantation: the MYSS follow-up randomized, controlled clinical trial. Remuzzi, G., Cravedi, P., Costantini, M., Lesti, M., Ganeva, M., Gherardi, G., Ene-Iordache, B., Gotti, E., Donati, D., Salvadori, M., Sandrini, S., Segoloni, G., Federico, S., Rigotti, P., Sparacino, V., Ruggenenti, P. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  29. Thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficiency: two nucleotide transitions define the most prevalent mutant allele associated with loss of catalytic activity in Caucasians. Tai, H.L., Krynetski, E.Y., Yates, C.R., Loennechen, T., Fessing, M.Y., Krynetskaia, N.F., Evans, W.E. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Circulating soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors, interleukin-2 receptors, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6 levels in rheumatoid arthritis. Longitudinal evaluation during methotrexate and azathioprine therapy. Barrera, P., Boerbooms, A.M., Janssen, E.M., Sauerwein, R.W., Gallati, H., Mulder, J., de Boo, T., Demacker, P.N., van de Putte, L.B., van der Meer, J.W. Arthritis Rheum. (1993) [Pubmed]
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  32. Mycophenolate mofetil-based immunosuppression and cytokine genotypes: effects on monokine secretion and antigen presentation in long-term renal transplant recipients. Weimer, R., Mytilineos, J., Feustel, A., Preiss, A., Daniel, V., Grimm, H., Wiesel, M., Opelz, G. Transplantation (2003) [Pubmed]
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