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Gene Review

cdc2  -  cyclin-dependent protein kinase Cdk1/Cdc2

Schizosaccharomyces pombe 972h-

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Disease relevance of cdc2


High impact information on cdc2


Biological context of cdc2


Anatomical context of cdc2

  • The cdc2 protein kinase, first identified as a cell cycle gene required for transition into the S- and M-phases of budding and fission yeast, has been shown to act as a key component in the regulation of the eukaryotic cell cycle [10].
  • These results suggest a key regulatory role of the cdc2-cyclin complex in the initiation of mitotic spindle formation and also that mitotic microtubule function is required for cdc2 activation [11].
  • Resting murine T lymphocytes contained no detectable p34cdc2 protein, histone kinase activity, or specific mRNA for the cdc2 gene [12].
  • Maturation-promoting factor and a homolog of fission yeast cdc2+ gene product (p34cdc2) were investigated during the final 24 hr of maturation of quail oocytes [13].

Associations of cdc2 with chemical compounds

  • Eukaryotic cell cycle progression requires the periodic activation and inactivation of a protein-serine/threonine kinase which in fission yeast is encoded by the cdc2+ gene [14].
  • Phospho-T was abolished in the alanine substitution mutant at the C-terminal T316, which is conserved as a residue in the cdc2 consensus, TPPR, in a number of type 1-like phosphatases [15].
  • Despite this, the caffeine-induced loss of viability was not blocked in a temperature-sensitive cdc2 mutant incubated at the restrictive temperature, although catastrophic mitosis was prevented under these conditions [16].
  • The kinase domains are approximately 50-55% homologous to members of the cdc2/CDC28 kinase gene family, and each contains a cysteine-for-serine substitution within the conserved PSTAIRE motif [17].
  • The product of the cdc2+ gene is a 34-kDa serine/threonine protein kinase, designated p34cdc2, that is a component of purified maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and also of purified mammalian growth-associated histone H1 kinase [18].

Physical interactions of cdc2


Enzymatic interactions of cdc2


Regulatory relationships of cdc2


Other interactions of cdc2

  • The simplest interpretation of these observations is that wee1+ codes for a negative element or inhibitor, and cdc2+ codes for a positive element or activator in the mitotic control [9].
  • Novel alleles of cdc13 and cdc2 isolated as suppressors of mitotic catastrophe in Schizosaccharomyces pombe [26].
  • The onset of mitosis is governed by cdc2 in partnership with the B-type cyclin, cdc13 [7].
  • The fission yeast cdc2/cdc13/suc1 protein kinase: regulation of catalytic activity and nuclear localization [4].
  • Activity of Start genes cdc2 and cdc10 is necessary and p34cdc2 kinase is active in re-replicating cells [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of cdc2


  1. Ethanol-hypersensitive and ethanol-dependent cdc- mutants in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Jimenez, J., Oballe, J. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Human wee1 maintains mitotic timing by protecting the nucleus from cytoplasmically activated Cdc2 kinase. Heald, R., McLoughlin, M., McKeon, F. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. mik1 and wee1 cooperate in the inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of cdc2. Lundgren, K., Walworth, N., Booher, R., Dembski, M., Kirschner, M., Beach, D. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. The fission yeast cdc2/cdc13/suc1 protein kinase: regulation of catalytic activity and nuclear localization. Booher, R.N., Alfa, C.E., Hyams, J.S., Beach, D.H. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. The wee1 protein kinase is required for radiation-induced mitotic delay. Rowley, R., Hudson, J., Young, P.G. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Fission yeast wee1 protein kinase is not required for DNA damage-dependent mitotic arrest. Barbet, N.C., Carr, A.M. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. A quantitative model for the cdc2 control of S phase and mitosis in fission yeast. Stern, B., Nurse, P. Trends Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. cdc2 and the regulation of mitosis: six interacting mcs genes. Molz, L., Booher, R., Young, P., Beach, D. Genetics (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulatory genes controlling mitosis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Nurse, P., Thuriaux, P. Genetics (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Regulation of cdc2 activity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: the role of phosphorylation. Fleig, U.N., Gould, K.L. Semin. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Distinct nuclear and spindle pole body population of cyclin-cdc2 in fission yeast. Alfa, C.E., Ducommun, B., Beach, D., Hyams, J.S. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of the murine homologue of the cell cycle control protein p34cdc2 in T lymphocytes. Kim, Y.H., Proust, J.J., Buchholz, M.J., Chrest, F.J., Nordin, A.A. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Maturation-promoting factor and p34cdc2 kinase during oocyte maturation of the Japanese quail. Mori, M., Yamashita, M., Yoshikuni, M., Fukada, S., Nagahama, Y. Dev. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Phosphorylation at Thr167 is required for Schizosaccharomyces pombe p34cdc2 function. Gould, K.L., Moreno, S., Owen, D.J., Sazer, S., Nurse, P. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Phosphorylation of dis2 protein phosphatase at the C-terminal cdc2 consensus and its potential role in cell cycle regulation. Yamano, H., Ishii, K., Yanagida, M. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Caffeine can override the S-M checkpoint in fission yeast. Wang, S.W., Norbury, C., Harris, A.L., Toda, T. J. Cell. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. PCTAIRE-1 and PCTAIRE-3, two members of a novel cdc2/CDC28-related protein kinase gene family. Okuda, T., Cleveland, J.L., Downing, J.R. Oncogene (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Biochemical characterization of the p34cdc2 protein kinase component of purified maturation-promoting factor from Xenopus eggs. Erikson, E., Maller, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. B-type cyclins regulate G1 progression in fission yeast in opposition to the p25rum1 cdk inhibitor. Martin-Castellanos, C., Labib, K., Moreno, S. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Fission yeast cdc25 is a cell-cycle regulated protein. Ducommun, B., Draetta, G., Young, P., Beach, D. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Role of the fission yeast nim 1 protein kinase in the cell cycle response to nutritional signals. Belenguer, P., Pelloquin, L., Oustrin, M.L., Ducommun, B. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Negative regulation of mitosis by wee1+, a gene encoding a protein kinase homolog. Russell, P., Nurse, P. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. APC(ste9/srw1) promotes degradation of mitotic cyclins in G(1) and is inhibited by cdc2 phosphorylation. Blanco, M.A., Sánchez-Díaz, A., de Prada, J.M., Moreno, S. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. The fission yeast cell cycle control gene cdc2: isolation of a sequence suc1 that suppresses cdc2 mutant function. Hayles, J., Beach, D., Durkacz, B., Nurse, P. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Cmk2, a novel serine/threonine kinase in fission yeast. Alemany, V., Sanchez-Piris, M., Bachs, O., Aligue, R. FEBS Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Novel alleles of cdc13 and cdc2 isolated as suppressors of mitotic catastrophe in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Berry, L.D., Gould, K.L. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. A single fission yeast mitotic cyclin B p34cdc2 kinase promotes both S-phase and mitosis in the absence of G1 cyclins. Fisher, D.L., Nurse, P. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Cdc25A is a novel phosphatase functioning early in the cell cycle. Jinno, S., Suto, K., Nagata, A., Igarashi, M., Kanaoka, Y., Nojima, H., Okayama, H. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Analysis of Pneumocystis carinii introns. Thomas, C.F., Leof, E.B., Limper, A.H. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. A 38 kb segment containing the cdc2 gene from the left arm of fission yeast chromosome II: sequence analysis and characterization of the genomic DNA and cDNAs encoded on the segment. Machida, M., Yamazaki, S., Kunihiro, S., Tanaka, T., Kushida, N., Jinnno, K., Haikawa, Y., Yamazaki, J., Yamamoto, S., Sekine, M., Oguchi, A., Nagai, Y., Sakai, M., Aoki, K., Ogura, K., Kudoh, Y., Kikuchi, H., Zhang, M.Q., Yanagida, M. Yeast (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Isolation of the cell cycle control gene cdc2 from Paramecium tetraurelia. Tang, L., Pelech, S.L., Berger, J.D. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1995) [Pubmed]
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