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Gene Review

ABI2  -  protein phosphatase 2C 77

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of ABI2


High impact information on ABI2


Biological context of ABI2

  • This demonstrates that the signal transduction pathways for all three stimuli converge on, or close to, the ABI1 and ABI2 gene products [7].
  • The deduced amino acid sequence is 55% and 54% identical to ABI1 and ABI2, respectively [8].
  • Comparison of the genomic structure of the ABI1, ABI2 and AtP2C-HA genes suggests that they belong to a multigene family [8].
  • The data suggest that this mutation localized in a conserved motif in the PP2C catalytic domain could be used in other PP2Cs to reveal their biological functions [9].
  • Thus, the homologous ABI1 and ABI2 phosphatases appear to assume partially redundant functions in ABA signaling, which may provide a mechanism to maintain informational homeostasis [10].

Anatomical context of ABI2


Associations of ABI2 with chemical compounds

  • Thus, ABI1 and ABI2 seem to control fibrillin expression that is involved in mediating ABA-induced photoprotection [12].
  • The interaction between SOS2 and ABI2 was disrupted by the abi2-1 mutation, which causes increased tolerance to salt shock and abscisic acid insensitivity in plants [13].
  • In addition, the redox states of both ATGPX3 and ABI2 were found to be regulated by H(2)O(2) [5].
  • Upon H2O2 challenge, ABI2 is rapidly inactivated with an IC50 value of 50 microM in the presence of reduced glutathione [14].
  • Inhibitor studies with phenylarsine oxide and manipulation of the redox status of ABI2 in vitro indicate that oxidation of critical cysteine residue(s) is responsible for inactivation [14].

Physical interactions of ABI2


Other interactions of ABI2

  • A novel domain in the protein kinase SOS2 mediates interaction with the protein phosphatase 2C ABI2 [13].
  • The phosphatase activity of ABI2, measured in vitro, was reduced approximately fivefold by the addition of oxidized ATGPX3 [5].
  • Low-oxygen response was slightly increased in the aba1 mutant but was unchanged in abi2 [1].
  • Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling mutants (abi1 and abi2) and the UV-sensitive mutant, uvh6, showed the strongest defects in acquired thermotolerance of root growth and seedling survival [16].
  • These findings suggest that there is a separate regulatory pathway independent of ABI2/ ABI4/ ABI5 [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ABI2


  1. Abscisic acid induces the alcohol dehydrogenase gene in Arabidopsis. de Bruxelles, G.L., Peacock, W.J., Dennis, E.S., Dolferus, R. Plant Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Ca2+-dependent protein kinases and stress signal transduction in plants. Sheen, J. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. A protein phosphatase 2C involved in ABA signal transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana. Meyer, K., Leube, M.P., Grill, E. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Homeodomain protein ATHB6 is a target of the protein phosphatase ABI1 and regulates hormone responses in Arabidopsis. Himmelbach, A., Hoffmann, T., Leube, M., Höhener, B., Grill, E. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. An Arabidopsis glutathione peroxidase functions as both a redox transducer and a scavenger in abscisic Acid and drought stress responses. Miao, Y., Lv, D., Wang, P., Wang, X.C., Chen, J., Miao, C., Song, C.P. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Physical and functional interaction of the Arabidopsis K(+) channel AKT2 and phosphatase AtPP2CA. Chérel, I., Michard, E., Platet, N., Mouline, K., Alcon, C., Sentenac, H., Thibaud, J.B. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Convergence of the abscisic acid, CO2, and extracellular calcium signal transduction pathways in stomatal guard cells. Webb, A.A., Hetherington, A.M. Plant Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular cloning in Arabidopsis thaliana of a new protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) with homology to ABI1 and ABI2. Rodriguez, P.L., Leube, M.P., Grill, E. Plant Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. A hypermorphic mutation in the protein phosphatase 2C HAB1 strongly affects ABA signaling in Arabidopsis. Robert, N., Merlot, S., N'guyen, V., Boisson-Dernier, A., Schroeder, J.I. FEBS Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. The Arabidopsis ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE2 (ABI2) and ABI1 genes encode homologous protein phosphatases 2C involved in abscisic acid signal transduction. Leung, J., Merlot, S., Giraudat, J. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Abscisic acid activation of plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels in guard cells requires cytosolic NAD(P)H and is differentially disrupted upstream and downstream of reactive oxygen species production in abi1-1 and abi2-1 protein phosphatase 2C mutants. Murata, Y., Pei, Z.M., Mori, I.C., Schroeder, J. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Fibrillin expression is regulated by abscisic acid response regulators and is involved in abscisic acid-mediated photoprotection. Yang, Y., Sulpice, R., Himmelbach, A., Meinhard, M., Christmann, A., Grill, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. A novel domain in the protein kinase SOS2 mediates interaction with the protein phosphatase 2C ABI2. Ohta, M., Guo, Y., Halfter, U., Zhu, J.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. The sensitivity of ABI2 to hydrogen peroxide links the abscisic acid-response regulator to redox signalling. Meinhard, M., Rodriguez, P.L., Grill, E. Planta (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. The AKT3 potassium channel protein interacts with the AtPP2CA protein phosphatase 2C. Vranová, E., Tähtiharju, S., Sriprang, R., Willekens, H., Heino, P., Palva, E.T., Inzé, D., Van Camp, W. J. Exp. Bot. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Heat stress phenotypes of Arabidopsis mutants implicate multiple signaling pathways in the acquisition of thermotolerance. Larkindale, J., Hall, J.D., Knight, M.R., Vierling, E. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Glucose delays seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. Dekkers, B.J., Schuurmans, J.A., Smeekens, S.C. Planta (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. A bifurcating pathway directs abscisic acid effects on stomatal closure and opening in Arabidopsis. Mishra, G., Zhang, W., Deng, F., Zhao, J., Wang, X. Science (2006) [Pubmed]
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