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Gene Review

PPR1  -  Ppr1p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Pyrimidine pathway regulatory protein 1, YLR014C
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High impact information on PPR1

  • PPR1, a yeast activator with a similar zinc finger sequence, also responds to GAL11 and to GAL11P, whereas regulators bearing unrelated DNA binding motifs do not [1].
  • By contrast, our results demonstrate that all but one of the 28 amino acids encompassing the single zinc-finger region of GAL4, the yeast transcriptional activator, can be replaced with the analogous zinc-finger region from another yeast-activator protein, PPR1, without changing the DNA-binding specificity of GAL4 [2].
  • Moreover, substitution of the HAP1 dimerization domain with that of PPR1, which forms coiled-coils and dimerizes symmetrically, did not diminish the ability of the protein to bind selectively to a direct repeat [3].
  • In comparison, a nontelomeric URA3 could be activated by PPR1 at all times [4].
  • Whereas the GAL4 site has 11 intervening base pairs, the PPR1 site has 6 [5].

Biological context of PPR1

  • The promoters of the unlinked but coordinately regulated URA1 and URA4 genes contain highly conserved copies of the UASURA sequence, which prompted us to investigate the effects of many point mutations within this UASURA sequence on PPR1-dependent binding [6].
  • MEU1 is linked to PPR1 on chromosome XII [7].
  • The DNA sequence of a 399-bp AccI-Bg/II fragment including 180 nucleotides of the 5'-flanking region of the gene PPR1 has been determined [8].
  • Three in vitro-constructed deletions of PPR1 have been integrated at the chromosomal locus, giving strains with a completely negative phenotype [9].
  • The ability of PPR1 to overcome silencing varied at different points in the cell cycle [4].

Associations of PPR1 with chemical compounds

  • Expression of the yeast pyrimidine biosynthetic gene, URA3, is induced three- to fivefold in response to uracil starvation, and this regulation is mediated by the transcriptional activator PPR1 (pyrimidine pathway regulator 1) [6].
  • A 16-base-pair sequence with dyad symmetry acts acts as a uracil-controlled upstream activating site (UASURA) and shows a specific binding only with cell extracts from strains overproducing PPR1 [6].
  • In addition, we showed that UASURA contains a constitutive activating element which can stimulate transcription from a heterologous promoter independently of dihydroorotic acid and PPR1 [6].
  • We have demonstrated that the six cysteine residues of the peptide chelate two cadmium ions as in GAL4 and PPR1 [10].
  • The sequence and binding specificity of UaY, the specific regulator of the purine utilization pathway in Aspergillus nidulans, suggest an evolutionary relationship with the PPR1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [11].

Physical interactions of PPR1

  • We have mapped an Upf1p-dependent destabilizing element to a region located within the 5'-UTR and the first 92 bases of the PPR1 ORF [12].

Regulatory relationships of PPR1


Other interactions of PPR1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PPR1


  1. GAL11P: a yeast mutation that potentiates the effect of weak GAL4-derived activators. Himmelfarb, H.J., Pearlberg, J., Last, D.H., Ptashne, M. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Altering DNA-binding specificity of GAL4 requires sequences adjacent to the zinc finger. Corton, J.C., Johnston, S.A. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. The yeast activator HAP1--a GAL4 family member--binds DNA in a directly repeated orientation. Zhang, L., Guarente, L. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Overcoming telomeric silencing: a trans-activator competes to establish gene expression in a cell cycle-dependent way. Aparicio, O.M., Gottschling, D.E. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Crystal structure of a PPR1-DNA complex: DNA recognition by proteins containing a Zn2Cys6 binuclear cluster. Marmorstein, R., Harrison, S.C. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. cis- and trans-acting regulatory elements of the yeast URA3 promoter. Roy, A., Exinger, F., Losson, R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Isolation and identification of genes activating UAS2-dependent ADH2 expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Donoviel, M.S., Young, E.T. Genetics (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. In vivo transcription of a eukaryotic regulatory gene. Losson, R., Fuchs, R.P., Lacroute, F. EMBO J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Yeast regulatory gene PPR1. II. Chromosomal localization, meiotic map, suppressibility, dominance/recessivity and dosage effect. Liljelund, P., Losson, R., Kammerer, B., Lacroute, F. J. Mol. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. 1H, 15N resonance assignment and three-dimensional structure of CYP1 (HAP1) DNA-binding domain. Timmerman, J., Vuidepot, A.L., Bontems, F., Lallemand, J.Y., Gervais, M., Shechter, E., Guiard, B. J. Mol. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. The sequence and binding specificity of UaY, the specific regulator of the purine utilization pathway in Aspergillus nidulans, suggest an evolutionary relationship with the PPR1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Suárez, T., de Queiroz, M.V., Oestreicher, N., Scazzocchio, C. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. The Upf-dependent decay of wild-type PPR1 mRNA depends on its 5'-UTR and first 92 ORF nucleotides. Kebaara, B., Nazarenus, T., Taylor, R., Forch, A., Atkin, A.L. Nucleic Acids Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Yeast promoters URA1 and URA3. Examples of positive control. Losson, R., Fuchs, R.P., Lacroute, F. J. Mol. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Yeast regulatory gene PPR1. I. Nucleotide sequence, restriction map and codon usage. Kammerer, B., Guyonvarch, A., Hubert, J.C. J. Mol. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Complete sequence of a eukaryotic regulatory gene. Hubert, J.C., Guyonvarch, A., Kammerer, B., Exinger, F., Liljelund, P., Lacroute, F. EMBO J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. The C6 zinc finger and adjacent amino acids determine DNA-binding specificity and affinity in the yeast activator proteins LAC9 and PPR1. Witte, M.M., Dickson, R.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. A single amino acid change in a pathway-specific transcription factor results in differing degrees of constitutivity, hyperinducibility and derepression of several structural genes. Oestreicher, N., Scazzocchio, C. J. Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. NMR analysis of CYP1(HAP1) DNA binding domain-CYC1 upstream activation sequence interactions: recognition of a CGG trinucleotide and of an additional thymine 5 bp downstream by the zinc cluster and the N-terminal extremity of the protein. Vuidepot, A.L., Bontems, F., Gervais, M., Guiard, B., Shechter, E., Lallemand, J.Y. Nucleic Acids Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
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