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Gene Review

GAL11  -  Gal11p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: ABE1, Autonomous replication regulatory protein 3, Basal expression activator protein 1, Defective silencing suppressor protein 4, MED15, ...
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Disease relevance of GAL11

  • Recessive mutations of GAL11 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cause pleiotropic defects that include weak fermentation of galactose, alpha-specific sterility and slow growth on nonfermentable carbon sources [1].

High impact information on GAL11

  • In yeast strains bearing the point mutation called GAL11P (for potentiator), certain GAL4 derivatives lacking any classical activating region work as strong activators [2].
  • From these observations and further analyses of GAL11, we propose that a single activator-holoenzyme contact can trigger gene activation simply by recruiting the latter to DNA [2].
  • PPR1, a yeast activator with a similar zinc finger sequence, also responds to GAL11 and to GAL11P, whereas regulators bearing unrelated DNA binding motifs do not [3].
  • Importantly, binding of both the Gal11 and Srb4 mediator components to the upstream region of HO is independent of the SBF factor [4].
  • We show that Swi5 recruits Mediator to HO by specific interaction with the Gal11 module of the Mediator complex [4].

Biological context of GAL11

  • When the GAL11 locus was disrupted by insertion of the URA3 gene, the resulting yeast cells (gal11::URA3) exhibited phenotypes almost identical to those of the gal11 strains, with respect to both galactose utilization and growth on nonfermentable carbon sources [5].
  • The yeast GAL11 protein is involved in regulation of the structure and the position effect of telomeres [6].
  • We determined the nucleotide sequence of GAL11, which is predicted to encode a 107-kilodalton protein with stretches of polyglutamine and poly(glutamine-alanine) [5].
  • Using reporters bearing various upstream activating sequences (UAS) and different core promoter structures, we show that the involvement of GAL11 in transcriptional activation varies with the target promoter and the particular combination of cis elements [7].
  • Gel electrophoresis in the presence of chloroquine shows that GAL11 affects the chromatin structure of a circular plasmid [7].

Anatomical context of GAL11

  • A suppressor, the COOH-terminal half of the Gal11 transcription factor, rescues the vac5-1 phenotype of defective vacuole inheritance without altering the vac5-1 phenotype of elevated phosphatase levels [8].
  • In a reconstituted cell-free system, Gal11 protein stimulated basal transcription in the presence of wild-type TFIIE [9].

Associations of GAL11 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of GAL11

  • Finally, we show that Esc8p interacts with the Gal11 protein, a component of the RNA pol II mediator complex [12].
  • A role for SPT13 in the negative regulation of the activity of the Ty1 MCM1-binding site is consistent with our previous proposal that spt13-mediated suppression of Ty insertion mutations could be attributed to the loss of negative regulation of genes adjacent to Ty elements [13].
  • Furthermore, one of the Gal80-binding peptides binds directly to a domain of the Gal11 protein, a known coactivator [14].
  • GST pull-down analysis revealed that the transcriptional repressor Tup1 binds to distinct but overlapping regions of the Gal11 module that were shown previously to be transcriptional activator binding sites [15].
  • Moreover the transactivating region of Msn2 interacts in vitro with the N-terminal domain of Gal11 [16].

Regulatory relationships of GAL11

  • The yeast co-activator GAL11 positively influences transcription of the phosphoglycerate kinase gene, but only when RAP1 is bound to its upstream activation sequence [17].
  • The partially purified GAL11 protein stimulated basal transcription from the CYC1 core promoter by a factor of 4-5 at the step of preinitiation complex formation [18].
  • Our results suggest that SPT13 has a role in the negative control of MCM1 activity that is likely to be posttranslational [13].
  • SDS4 mutations also suppress the silencing defect caused by mutations in the RAP1-interacting factor RIF1 [19].

Other interactions of GAL11

  • Deficiency of Gal4, the major transcription activator for GAL1,7,10, was epistatic over the gal11 defect [5].
  • Many of these phenotypes also result from mutations in GAL11, SIN4 or RGR1, which encode proteins of the RNA polII mediator [20].
  • The ABE1-1 mutation also suppressed the aggregation phenotype and the rough colony morphology of the sin4 mutant cells, while it exacerbated temperature sensitive growth and telomere shortening, suggesting that Abe1p is involved in the basal transcription not only of PHO5 but also of other diversely regulated genes [21].
  • Like Paf1p, the GAL11 gene product is found associated with RNA polymerase II and is required for regulated expression of many yeast genes including those controlled by galactose [22].
  • The yeast HRS1 gene is involved in positive and negative regulation of transcription and shows genetic characteristics similar to SIN4 and GAL11 [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GAL11

  • Sequence analysis has shown that the RAR3 gene is identical to GAL11/SPT13, which encodes a putative transcription factor involved in the expression of a wide range of genes [23].
  • A 52.7 kDa protein corresponding in size to the predicted Esu1 protein is detected by western blot analysis using anti-Gal11 antiserum [24].


  1. Isolation and characterization of SGE1: a yeast gene that partially suppresses the gal11 mutation in multiple copies. Amakasu, H., Suzuki, Y., Nishizawa, M., Fukasawa, T. Genetics (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Contact with a component of the polymerase II holoenzyme suffices for gene activation. Barberis, A., Pearlberg, J., Simkovich, N., Farrell, S., Reinagel, P., Bamdad, C., Sigal, G., Ptashne, M. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. GAL11P: a yeast mutation that potentiates the effect of weak GAL4-derived activators. Himmelfarb, H.J., Pearlberg, J., Last, D.H., Ptashne, M. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. The Swi5 activator recruits the Mediator complex to the HO promoter without RNA polymerase II. Bhoite, L.T., Yu, Y., Stillman, D.J. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. GAL11 protein, an auxiliary transcription activator for genes encoding galactose-metabolizing enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Suzuki, Y., Nogi, Y., Abe, A., Fukasawa, T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. The yeast GAL11 protein is involved in regulation of the structure and the position effect of telomeres. Suzuki, Y., Nishizawa, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Positive and negative transcriptional regulation by the yeast GAL11 protein depends on the structure of the promoter and a combination of cis elements. Nishizawa, M., Taga, S., Matsubara, A. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. A truncated form of the Pho80 cyclin redirects the Pho85 kinase to disrupt vacuole inheritance in S. cerevisiae. Nicolson, T.A., Weisman, L.S., Payne, G.S., Wickner, W.T. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Yeast Gal11 and transcription factor IIE function through a common pathway in transcriptional regulation. Sakurai, H., Fukasawa, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Sequence conservation in the Saccharomyces and Kluveromyces GAL11 transcription activators suggests functional domains. Mylin, L.M., Gerardot, C.J., Hopper, J.E., Dickson, R.C. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Proteins that genetically interact with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Gal11p emphasize its role in the initiation-elongation transition. Badi, L., Barberis, A. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Restoration of silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by tethering of a novel Sir2-interacting protein, Esc8. Cuperus, G., Shore, D. Genetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. SPT13 (GAL11) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae negatively regulates activity of the MCM1 transcription factor in Ty1 elements. Yu, G., Fassler, J.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Peptides selected to bind the Gal80 repressor are potent transcriptional activation domains in yeast. Han, Y., Kodadek, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Med9/Cse2 and Gal11 modules are required for transcriptional repression of distinct group of genes. Han, S.J., Lee, J.S., Kang, J.S., Kim, Y.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Role of Gal11, a component of the RNA polymerase II mediator in stress-induced hyperphosphorylation of Msn2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lallet, S., Garreau, H., Garmendia-Torres, C., Szestakowska, D., Boy-Marcotte, E., Quevillon-Ch??ruel, S., Jacquet, M. Mol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. The yeast co-activator GAL11 positively influences transcription of the phosphoglycerate kinase gene, but only when RAP1 is bound to its upstream activation sequence. Stanway, C.A., Gibbs, J.M., Kearsey, S.E., López, M.C., Baker, H.V. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Yeast GAL11 protein is a distinctive type transcription factor that enhances basal transcription in vitro. Sakurai, H., Hiraoka, Y., Fukasawa, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Suppressors of defective silencing in yeast: effects on transcriptional repression at the HMR locus, cell growth and telomere structure. Sussel, L., Vannier, D., Shore, D. Genetics (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. The yeast HRS1 gene is involved in positive and negative regulation of transcription and shows genetic characteristics similar to SIN4 and GAL11. Piruat, J.I., Chávez, S., Aguilera, A. Genetics (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Gal11 is a general activator of basal transcription, whose activity is regulated by the general repressor Sin4 in yeast. Mizuno, T., Harashima, S. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Paf1p, an RNA polymerase II-associated factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, may have both positive and negative roles in transcription. Shi, X., Finkelstein, A., Wolf, A.J., Wade, P.A., Burton, Z.F., Jaehning, J.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. rar mutations which increase artificial chromosome stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identify transcription and recombination proteins. Kipling, D., Tambini, C., Kearsey, S.E. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ESU1 gene, which is responsible for enhancement of termination suppression, corresponds to the 3'-terminal half of GAL11. Ono, B., Futase, T., Honda, W., Yoshida, R., Nakano, K., Yamamoto, T., Nakajima, E., Noskov, V.N., Negishi, K., Chen, B., Chernoff, Y.O. Yeast (2005) [Pubmed]
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