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Gene Review

SPT16  -  chromatin-remodeling protein SPT16

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: CDC68, Cell division control protein 68, FACT complex subunit SPT16, Facilitates chromatin transcription complex subunit SPT16, SSF1, ...
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Disease relevance of SPT16


High impact information on SPT16


Biological context of SPT16

  • Yeast Spt16/Cdc68 and Pob3 form a heterodimer that acts in both DNA replication and transcription [5].
  • We show that at the nonpermissive temperature, cdc68-1 mutants arrest as unbudded cells with a 1C DNA content, consistent with a possible role for Cdc68 in the prereplicative stage of the cell cycle [6].
  • Overexpression of Cdc68 in a pol1 mutant strain dramatically decreased cell viability, consistent with the formation or modulation of an essential complex by these proteins in vivo [6].
  • The something about silencing protein, Sas3, is the catalytic subunit of NuA3, a yTAF(II)30-containing HAT complex that interacts with the Spt16 subunit of the yeast CP (Cdc68/Pob3)-FACT complex [3].
  • We suggest that Cdc68 functions both in the assembly of repressive complexes that form on many intact promoters in vivo and in the relief of this repression during gene activation [7].

Associations of SPT16 with chemical compounds

  • Nhp6 interacts with Spt16/Pob3, the yeast equivalent of the FACT elongation complex, consistent with nhp6ab cells being extremely sensitive to 6-azauracil (6-AU) [8].

Physical interactions of SPT16

  • Mutations in the TOA2 subunit of TFIIA that disrupt TBP-TFIIA complex formation in vitro are also synthetically lethal with spt16 [9].

Regulatory relationships of SPT16

  • Mutations in Sir Antagonist 1 (SAN1) suppress defects in SIR4 and SPT16 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [10].
  • In some cases this spt16 toa2 lethality is suppressed by overexpression of TBP or the Nhp6 architectural transcription factor that is also a component of yFACT [9].

Other interactions of SPT16

  • These results suggest that Spt16-Pob3 and Nhp6 cooperate to function as a novel nucleosome reorganizing factor [5].
  • This result suggests that there may be both a chromatin structure and a UAS-specific component to Cdc68 function at SWI4 [7].
  • The decreased abundance of cyclin transcripts in cdc68-1 mutant cells, coupled with the suppression of cdc68-1-mediated START arrest by the CLN2-1 hyperactive allele of CLN2, shows that the CDC68 gene affects START through cyclin gene expression [11].
  • We investigated relationships between three classes of these factors: (1) transcription elongation factors Spt4-Spt5, TFIIS, and Spt16; (2) the C-terminal heptapeptide repeat domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II; and (3) protein kinases that phosphorylate the CTD and a phosphatase that dephosphorylates it [12].
  • Sug1 modulates yeast transcription activation by Cdc68 [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SPT16


  1. A Gene-Specific Requirement for FACT during Transcription Is Related to the Chromatin Organization of the Transcribed Region. Jimeno-Gonz??lez, S., G??mez-Herreros, F., Alepuz, P.M., Ch??vez, S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. The chromatin-specific transcription elongation factor FACT comprises human SPT16 and SSRP1 proteins. Orphanides, G., Wu, W.H., Lane, W.S., Hampsey, M., Reinberg, D. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. The something about silencing protein, Sas3, is the catalytic subunit of NuA3, a yTAF(II)30-containing HAT complex that interacts with the Spt16 subunit of the yeast CP (Cdc68/Pob3)-FACT complex. John, S., Howe, L., Tafrov, S.T., Grant, P.A., Sternglanz, R., Workman, J.L. Genes Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of SSF1, CNS1, and HCH1 as multicopy suppressors of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hsp90 loss-of-function mutation. Nathan, D.F., Vos, M.H., Lindquist, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Spt16-Pob3 and the HMG protein Nhp6 combine to form the nucleosome-binding factor SPN. Formosa, T., Eriksson, P., Wittmeyer, J., Ginn, J., Yu, Y., Stillman, D.J. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase alpha catalytic subunit interacts with Cdc68/Spt16 and with Pob3, a protein similar to an HMG1-like protein. Wittmeyer, J., Formosa, T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Differential effects of Cdc68 on cell cycle-regulated promoters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lycan, D., Mikesell, G., Bunger, M., Breeden, L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. TATA-binding protein mutants that are lethal in the absence of the Nhp6 high-mobility-group protein. Eriksson, P., Biswas, D., Yu, Y., Stewart, J.M., Stillman, D.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. The yeast FACT complex has a role in transcriptional initiation. Biswas, D., Yu, Y., Prall, M., Formosa, T., Stillman, D.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Sir Antagonist 1 (San1) is a ubiquitin ligase. Dasgupta, A., Ramsey, K.L., Smith, J.S., Auble, D.T. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. CDC68, a yeast gene that affects regulation of cell proliferation and transcription, encodes a protein with a highly acidic carboxyl terminus. Rowley, A., Singer, R.A., Johnston, G.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Genetic interactions of Spt4-Spt5 and TFIIS with the RNA polymerase II CTD and CTD modifying enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lindstrom, D.L., Hartzog, G.A. Genetics (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Sug1 modulates yeast transcription activation by Cdc68. Xu, Q., Singer, R.A., Johnston, G.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc68 transcription activator is antagonized by San1, a protein implicated in transcriptional silencing. Xu, Q., Johnston, G.C., Singer, R.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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