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Gene Review

GALP  -  galanin-like peptide

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Galanin-like peptide
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Disease relevance of GALP

  • Since GALP is involved in the control of food intake and energy balance, it is possible that it plays an important role in the development of obesity [1].
  • Ganglioneuroma tissues revealed the presence of a splice variant of the galanin-like peptide (GALP) mRNA, which results in exclusion of exon 3 and a frame shift after the signal peptide sequence of GALP [2].

Psychiatry related information on GALP

  • Because GALP may be involved in feeding behavior, energy metabolism and reproduction, further studies on the morphology and function of GALP-containing neurons in the CNS should increase our understanding of the role of GALP in brain function [1].

High impact information on GALP


Chemical compound and disease context of GALP


Biological context of GALP


Anatomical context of GALP


Associations of GALP with chemical compounds

  • Furthermore, GALP regulates plasma lateral hypothalamus (LH) levels via the activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-producing neurons, suggesting that GALP is active in the reproductive system [1].
  • Linkage analyses showed that the AGP is composed of a highly branched core polysaccharide of 3-, 6-, and 3,6-linked Galp residues with terminal Araf, GlcAp and Galp [14].
  • Analysis by GLC-MS revealed the products expected from terminal (nonreducing) Neu5Ac (8 and 11), 3-linked Galp (16), and 4-linked Glcp (15) residues in relative molar ratios of 1.2:1.0:1.0, respectively [15].
  • This shielding effect has been attributed to the orientation of the hydroxy protons toward the amphiphilic region constituted by the hydroxy groups of the Galp residue and mainly the ring and methyl hydrogens of the Fucp unit attached to the GlcpNAc [16].
  • Present were a galactoglucomannan, a polysaccharide, possibly a mixture, containing beta-D-Galf, and alpha-L-Araf units and a glycopeptide with alpha- and beta-D-Galf, Galp, Glcp and Manp units, having a core with successive (1-->2)-linked alpha-D-Manp residues substituted at O-3 with those of alpha-D-Galf [17].

Regulatory relationships of GALP


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GALP

  • In addition, galanin perfusion substantially suppressed the spontaneous spike firing in most Arc neurons, whereas in response to GALP perfusion, about half of the Arc neurons exhibited mild reduction in spontaneous spike firing and the other half showed enhancement [9].
  • This led us to investigate, using both light and electron microscopy, whether GALP-containing neurons in the rat brain make direct inputs to LHRH-containing neurons [18].
  • We also used immunohistochemistry to investigate the neuronal interaction between GALP- and LHRH-containing neurons [18].


  1. Galanin-like peptide in the brain: effects on feeding, energy metabolism and reproduction. Kageyama, H., Takenoya, F., Kita, T., Hori, T., Guan, J.L., Shioda, S. Regul. Pept. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Gangliocytes in neuroblastic tumors express alarin, a novel peptide derived by differential splicing of the galanin-like peptide gene. Santic, R., Fenninger, K., Graf, K., Schneider, R., Hauser-Kronberger, C., Schilling, F.H., Kogner, P., Ratschek, M., Jones, N., Sperl, W., Kofler, B. J. Mol. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Refined structure of the lipophosphoglycan of Leishmania donovani. Thomas, J.R., McConville, M.J., Thomas-Oates, J.E., Homans, S.W., Ferguson, M.A., Gorin, P.A., Greis, K.D., Turco, S.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Structural studies on the carbohydrate portion of human antithrombin III. Franzén, L.E., Svensson, S., Larm, O. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Galanin-like peptide as a link in the integration of metabolism and reproduction. Gottsch, M.L., Clifton, D.K., Steiner, R.A. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Cloning and distribution of galanin-like peptide mRNA in the hypothalamus and pituitary of the macaque. Cunningham, M.J., Scarlett, J.M., Steiner, R.A. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Immunolesions of glucoresponsive projections to the arcuate nucleus alter glucoprivic-induced alterations in food intake, luteinizing hormone secretion, and GALP mRNA, but not sex behavior in adult male rats. Fraley, G.S. Neuroendocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Galanin/GALP receptors and CNS homeostatic processes. Robinson, J.K., Bartfai, T., Langel, U. CNS & neurological disorders drug targets. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Galanin and galanin-like peptide differentially modulate neuronal activities in rat arcuate nucleus neurons. Dong, Y., Tyszkiewicz, J.P., Fong, T.M. J. Neurophysiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Mutations in the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase gene of two families with mild galactosaemia variants. Sommer, M., Gathof, B.S., Podskarbi, T., Giugliani, R., Kleinlein, B., Shin, Y.S. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Galanin/GALP and galanin receptors: role in central control of feeding, body weight/obesity and reproduction? Gundlach, A.L. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Galanin-like peptide (GALP) mRNA expression is restricted to arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus in adult male rat brain. Larm, J.A., Gundlach, A.L. Neuroendocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Microinjection of galanin-like Peptide into the medial preoptic area stimulates food intake in adult male rats. Patterson, M., Murphy, K.G., Thompson, E.L., Smith, K.L., Meeran, K., Ghatei, M.A., Bloom, S.R. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. An arabinogalactan-protein from cell culture of Malva sylvestris. Classen, B., Blaschek, W. Planta Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Structural analysis of sialic acid-containing carbohydrates by the reductive-cleavage method. Srivastava, V., Gray, G.R. Carbohydr. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Hydroxy protons in conformational study of a Lewis b tetrasaccharide derivative in aqueous solution by NMR spectroscopy. Bekiroglu, S., Sandström, C., Norberg, T., Kenne, L. Carbohydr. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Carbohydrate, glycopeptide and protein components of the lichen Sticta sp. and effect of storage. da Silva, M.d.e. .L., Iacomini, M., Jablonski, E., Gorin, P.A. Phytochemistry (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Neural interaction between galanin-like peptide (GALP)- and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)-containing neurons. Takenoya, F., Guan, J.L., Kato, M., Sakuma, Y., Kintaka, Y., Kitamura, Y., Kitamura, S., Okuda, H., Takeuchi, M., Kageyama, H., Shioda, S. Peptides (2006) [Pubmed]
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