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Gene Review

LRAT  -  lecithin retinol acyltransferase...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: LCA14, Lecithin retinol acyltransferase, Phosphatidylcholine--retinol O-acyltransferase
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Disease relevance of LRAT


High impact information on LRAT

  • The isomerohydrolase activity of RPE65 requires coexpression of lecithin retinol acyltransferase in the same cell to provide its substrate [6].
  • We also found that the immortalization of normal human prostatic epithelial cells by SV40 T antigen led to a reduction in LRAT protein expression and esterification of [(3)H]retinol [7].
  • Recent studies from our laboratory have indicated that the metabolism of vitamin A (retinol) to retinyl esters, carried out primarily by the enzyme lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), is greatly reduced in human carcinoma cell lines of the oral cavity, skin, breast, and kidney as compared with their normal epithelial counterparts [7].
  • Further transformation to tumorigenicity with the ras oncogene resulted in loss of detectable LRAT expression [7].
  • LRAT protein was predominantly expressed in the basal cells of normal prostatic epithelium, whereas its expression was lost in prostate cancer [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of LRAT

  • A primary site cutaneous melanoma and its metastatic match (both of epithelioid morphology) were capable of retinol esterification, while a matched fibroblastoid tumor pair did not synthesize retinyl esters; nevertheless, LRAT (lecithin:retinol acyltransferase) protein was found in microsomal fractions from all four tumors [4].

Biological context of LRAT

  • Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) is believed to be the predominant if not the sole enzyme in the body responsible for the physiologic esterification of retinol [8].
  • Full-length LRAT mRNA comprises 5023 nt with a predicted ORF of 230 amino acids, a short 5'UTR, and a relatively long 3'UTR of 4 kb containing several polyadenylation signals and AU-rich regions [9].
  • Based on alignment of this mRNA with human genomic DNA in the GenBank database, the human LRAT gene spans about 9.1 kbp and consists of two exons and a relatively long 4-kbp intron [9].
  • This region contains a TATA box, CCAAT box and Sp1 site, which are apparently conserved in mouse and rat LRAT genes [9].
  • Further analysis of normal liver revealed a minor alternative splicing variant which lacks a 103 nt polynucleotide contained in the 5'UTR of the full-length LRAT transcript [9].

Anatomical context of LRAT


Associations of LRAT with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of LRAT

  • Apo-CRBP reacted with 4 mM p-(chloromercuri)benzenesulfonic acid lost retinol binding ability but retained the ability to inhibit LRAT, confirming that the inhibition could not be explained by a reduction in the concentration of free retinol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[12]

Other interactions of LRAT


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LRAT


  1. Differential expression of the enzyme that esterifies retinol, lecithin:retinol acyltransferase, in subtypes of human renal cancer and normal kidney. Zhan, H.C., Gudas, L.J., Bok, D., Rando, R., Nanus, D.M., Tickoo, S.K. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Epidermal growth factor signaling pathway influences retinoid metabolism by reduction of retinyl ester hydrolase activities in normal and malignant keratinocytes. Jurukovski, V., Simon, M. J. Cell. Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of a smaller lecithin:retinol acyl transferase transcript and reduced retinol esterification in MCF-7 cells. Andreola, F., Giandomenico, V., Spero, R., De Luca, L.M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Human melanomas of fibroblast and epithelial morphology differ widely in their ability to synthesize retinyl esters. Simmons, D.P., Andreola, F., De Luca, L.M. Carcinogenesis (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Screening Genes of the Retinoid Metabolism: Novel LRAT Mutation in Leber Congenital Amaurosis. S??n??chal, A., Humbert, G., Surget, M.O., Bazalgette, C., Bazalgette, C., Arnaud, B., Arndt, C., Laurent, E., Brabet, P., Hamel, C.P. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. RPE65 is the isomerohydrolase in the retinoid visual cycle. Moiseyev, G., Chen, Y., Takahashi, Y., Wu, B.X., Ma, J.X. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Retinol metabolism and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase levels are reduced in cultured human prostate cancer cells and tissue specimens. Guo, X., Knudsen, B.S., Peehl, D.M., Ruiz, A., Bok, D., Rando, R.R., Rhim, J.S., Nanus, D.M., Gudas, L.J. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Retinoid absorption and storage is impaired in mice lacking lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). O'Byrne, S.M., Wongsiriroj, N., Libien, J., Vogel, S., Goldberg, I.J., Baehr, W., Palczewski, K., Blaner, W.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Cloning, gene organization and identification of an alternative splicing process in lecithin:retinol acyltransferase cDNA from human liver. Zolfaghari, R., Ross, A.C. Gene (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Reduced lecithin: retinol acyltransferase expression correlates with increased pathologic tumor stage in bladder cancer. Boorjian, S., Tickoo, S.K., Mongan, N.P., Yu, H., Bok, D., Rando, R.R., Nanus, D.M., Scherr, D.S., Gudas, L.J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Lecithin retinol acyltransferase is a founder member of a novel family of enzymes. Jahng, W.J., Xue, L., Rando, R.R. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Differential interaction of lecithin-retinol acyltransferase with cellular retinol binding proteins. Herr, F.M., Ong, D.E. Biochemistry (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Lack of fundus autofluorescence to 488 nanometers from childhood on in patients with early-onset severe retinal dystrophy associated with mutations in RPE65. Lorenz, B., Wabbels, B., Wegscheider, E., Hamel, C.P., Drexler, W., Preising, M.N. Ophthalmology (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of hepatic retinol metabolism: perspectives from studies on vitamin A status. Ross, A.C., Zolfaghari, R. J. Nutr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Differential gene expression profiles of radioresistant pancreatic cancer cell lines established by fractionated irradiation. Ogawa, K., Utsunomiya, T., Mimori, K., Tanaka, F., Haraguchi, N., Inoue, H., Murayama, S., Mori, M. Int. J. Oncol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Visual cycle retinoid processing proteins are present in HEK293S cells. Chen, Y., Moiseyev, G., Wu, B.X., Ma, J.X., Crouch, R.K. Vision Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Cloning and molecular expression analysis of large and small lecithin:retinol acyltransferase mRNAs in the liver and other tissues of adult rats. Zolfaghari, R., Wang, Y., Chen, Q., Sancher, A., Ross, A.C. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
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