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Gene Review

polB  -  DNA polymerase II

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK0061, JW0059, dinA
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Disease relevance of polB

  • We sequenced a 4081 nucleotide segment of the E. coli chromosome that contains the polB gene and its flanking regions [1].
  • Based on the analysis of the predicted protein, we have identified a sequence motif Asp-Xaa-Xaa-Ser-Leu-Tyr-Pro-Ser in DNA polymerase II that is highly conserved among a diverse group of DNA polymerases, which include those from humans, yeast, Herpes and vaccinia viruses, and phages T4 and PRD1 [2].

High impact information on polB

  • Although the Delta polB strain is completely defective in this mutation pathway, introduction of the polB gene on a low copy number plasmid restores the -2 frameshift pathway [3].
  • DNA polymerase II, the product of the damage-inducible polB (dinA ) gene plays a pivotal role in replication-restart, a process that bypasses DNA damage in an error-free manner [4].
  • Mechanism of DNA polymerase II-mediated frameshift mutagenesis [3].
  • DNA polymerase II (pol II), encoded by the dinA (polB) gene, is induced as part of the global SOS response to DNA damage [5].
  • Sequence analysis of the upstream region localized a LexA binding site overlapping the -35 region of the dinA promoter, and this promoter element was found to be only two nucleotides downstream from the 3' end of the araD gene [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of polB


Biological context of polB


Associations of polB with chemical compounds

  • Pentachlorophenol did not significantly induce any din genes. gamma-Irradiation is not an inducer of polB and ethanol failed to induce dinB::lacZ and dinD::lacZ [10].
  • The polB gene showed antagonistic responses to the simultaneous treatment of nalidixic acid and H2O2 or nalidixic acid and ethanol [10].
  • The structural gene for DNA polymerase II was cloned by using a synthetic inosine-containing oligonucleotide probe corresponding to 11 amino acids, which were determined by sequencing the amino terminus of the purified protein [2].
  • The cells that harbored multicopy plasmids with the dinA region expressed very high levels of DNA polymerase activity, which was sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide, an inhibitor of DNA polymerase II [11].
  • The data suggest that DNA polymerase II is involved in the tolerance of unremoved thymine dimers [6].

Regulatory relationships of polB

  • The effect of the polB mutation on Tn10 precise excision induced by all these treatments was compared to that of mutations in repair-recombination genes recF and recA [12].

Other interactions of polB


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of polB

  • Two different genes (polA and polB) encoding family B DNA polymerases were cloned from the organism by PCR using degenerated primers based on the two conserved motifs (motif A and B) [16].


  1. Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II is homologous to alpha-like DNA polymerases. Iwasaki, H., Ishino, Y., Toh, H., Nakata, A., Shinagawa, H. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. DNA polymerase II is encoded by the DNA damage-inducible dinA gene of Escherichia coli. Bonner, C.A., Hays, S., McEntee, K., Goodman, M.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Mechanism of DNA polymerase II-mediated frameshift mutagenesis. Becherel, O.J., Fuchs, R.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Roles of DNA polymerases V and II in SOS-induced error-prone and error-free repair in Escherichia coli. Pham, P., Rangarajan, S., Woodgate, R., Goodman, M.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. A phenotype for enigmatic DNA polymerase II: a pivotal role for pol II in replication restart in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli. Rangarajan, S., Woodgate, R., Goodman, M.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Role of DNA polymerase II in the tolerance of thymine dimers remaining unexcised in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli exposed to pre-UV nutritional stress. Sedliakova, M., Slezarikova, V., Masek, F., Vizvaryova, M., Pirsel, M. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II can efficiently bypass 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine lesions in vitro and in vivo. Al Mamun, A.A., Humayun, M.Z. Mutat. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. The Escherichia coli polB locus is identical to dinA, the structural gene for DNA polymerase II. Characterization of Pol II purified from a polB mutant. Qiu, Z., Goodman, M.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Specificity of replicative and SOS-inducible DNA polymerases in frameshift mutagenesis: mutability of Salmonella typhimurium strains overexpressing SOS-inducible DNA polymerases to 30 chemical mutagens. Matsui, K., Yamada, M., Imai, M., Yamamoto, K., Nohmi, T. DNA Repair (Amst.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. The damage-inducible (din) genes of Escherichia coli are induced by various genotoxins in a different way. Oh, T.J., Lee, C.W., Kim, I.G. Microbiol. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. The Escherichia coli polB gene, which encodes DNA polymerase II, is regulated by the SOS system. Iwasaki, H., Nakata, A., Walker, G.C., Shinagawa, H. J. Bacteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Participation of DNA polymerase II in the increased precise excision of Tn10. Nagel, R., Chan, A. DNA Repair (Amst.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Responses to the major acrolein-derived deoxyguanosine adduct in Escherichia coli. Yang, I.Y., Hossain, M., Miller, H., Khullar, S., Johnson, F., Grollman, A., Moriya, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. DNA polymerase I in constitutive stable DNA replication in Escherichia coli. Kogoma, T., Maldonado, R.R. J. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. REPLICAtion of small plasmids in extracts of Escherichia coli: requirement for both DNA polymerases I and II. Staudenbauer, W.L. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Two family B DNA polymerases from Aeropyrum pernix, an aerobic hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote. Cann, I.K., Ishino, S., Nomura, N., Sako, Y., Ishino, Y. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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