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Gene Review

polA  -  5' to 3' DNA polymerase and 3' to 5'/5' to...

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK3855, JW3835, resA
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Disease relevance of polA


High impact information on polA

  • In the first step, a cointegrate between the tetracycline-resistant incP/Ad5 replicon and the kanamycin-resistant ColE1-derivative is selected by growing the polA host in the presence of both antibiotics [5].
  • Plasmid pBR322 was found to replicate in rnh mutants in the absence of DNA polymerase I, the polA gene product, which is normally required for replication of this plasmid [6].
  • The plasmid copy number in polA rnh double mutants was as high as in the wild-type strains [6].
  • These ExoIII-sensitive sites (EXOSS) can then be postlabeled using digoxigenin-11-dUTP and Klenow DNA polymerase-I, and detected using fluorescein isothiocyanate-IgG against digoxigenin [7].
  • This permitted the construction of plasmid pMP5 which contains both the coding sequence for DNA polymerase I and the lambda pL promoter for conditional control of polA gene expression [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of polA

  • In E. coli, Ni(II) chloride potentiated the mutagenicity of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in polymerase-proficient strains (WP2+ and WP2-), but not in polA- strains (WP6 and WP67) or in lexA- (CM561) or recA- (CM571) strains [9].
  • Modification of survival after ultraviolet light exposure in a wild-type and a polA strain of Escherichia coli B/r by preirradiation treatment with chloramphenicol or rifampin [10].
  • Phage on steroid treatment also lost its plaque forming units (P.F.U.) which was more pronounced in the polA and rec A background [11].

Biological context of polA


Associations of polA with chemical compounds

  • The enhancement of u.v.-mutagenesis by ascorbate is absent in strains WP2s (uvrA) and WP6 (polA), suggesting that ascorbate affects the repair of pyrimidine dimers [15].
  • An extended lag phase was seen at 2-4 h in the polA- strains following treatment with Ni(II) chloride and MMS, but normal growth resumed thereafter [9].
  • The lower mutability of BS21 was not influenced by the polA mutation, while uvrA greatly reduced and recA eliminated the mutagenic activity of cis-DDP in both strains [16].
  • In this communication it is shown that damaged fragment release from the parental uvrABC incised DNA is dependent on either chelating conditions or upon the simultaneous addition of the uvrD gene product (helicase II) and the polA gene product (DNA polymerase I) when catalyzing concommitant polymerization of deoxynucleoside triphosphate substrates [17].
  • DNA elongation demonstrated with a dnaE(Ts) mutant or toluene-treated cells of a polA mutant was not significantly affected by aminoglycosides [18].

Other interactions of polA

  • The action of 313 nm radiation in cellular inactivation (biological measurements) and induction and repair of DNA strand breaks (physical measurements) were studied in a repair proficient strain and three repair deficient strains (polA, recA, uvrA) of Escherichia coli K-12 [19].
  • Recombination at dif was increased by known hyperrecombinogenic mutations such as polA, dut, and uvrD [20].
  • A strain carrying both xth and recA mutations and certain polA mutants appear to undergo spontaneous mode-one killing only under aerobic conditions [21].
  • This synergistic lethal interaction was also observed to a reduced extent in a polA mutant but was absent in uvrA, uvrArecA and xthA mutants [22].
  • However, addition of catalase to the rich plating medium used to assess viability restored counts of heat-injured recA, recB and polA strains to wild-type levels [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of polA


  1. Genetic characterization of early amber mutations in the Escherichia coli polA gene and purification of the amber peptides. Kelley, W.S., Joyce, C.M. J. Mol. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. A PCR method for the sequence analysis of the gyrA, polA and rnhA gene segments from mycobacteria. Mizrahi, V., Huberts, P., Dawes, S.S., Dudding, L.R. Gene (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. The action of 4-hydroxyaminobiphenyl in Escherichia coli: cytotoxic and mutagenic effects in DNA repair deficient strains. Suzuki, M., Takahashi, K., Morita, T., Kojima, M., Tada, M. Mutat. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Replacement and amplification of bacterial genes with sequences altered in vitro. Gutterson, N.I., Koshland, D.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Recombinational construction in Escherichia coli of infectious adenoviral genomes. Crouzet, J., Naudin, L., Orsini, C., Vigne, E., Ferrero, L., Le Roux, A., Benoit, P., Latta, M., Torrent, C., Branellec, D., Denèfle, P., Mayaux, J.F., Perricaudet, M., Yeh, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Absence of RNase H allows replication of pBR322 in Escherichia coli mutants lacking DNA polymerase I. Kogoma, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. In situ detection of AP sites and DNA strand breaks bearing 3'-phosphate termini in ischemic mouse brain. Huang, D., Shenoy, A., Cui, J., Huang, W., Liu, P.K. FASEB J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. Construction of a polA plasmid for amplification and an improved purification scheme. Minkley, E.G., Leney, A.T., Bodner, J.B., Panicker, M.M., Brown, W.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Nickel(II) genotoxicity: potentiation of mutagenesis of simple alkylating agents. Dubins, J.S., LaVelle, J.M. Mutat. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Modification of survival after ultraviolet light exposure in a wild-type and a polA strain of Escherichia coli B/r by preirradiation treatment with chloramphenicol or rifampin. Doudney, C.O., Rinaldi, C.N. Mutat. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Steroid induced single strand breaks in DNA mediated by active oxygen species and its biological consequences. Qadri, S.A., Ahmad, M. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. A new in vivo termination function for DNA polymerase I of Escherichia coli K12. Markovitz, A. Mol. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Host and phage-coded functions required for coliphage N4 DNA replication. Guinta, D., Stambouly, J., Falco, S.C., Rist, J.K., Rothman-Denes, L.B. Virology (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli polA gene and primary structure of DNA polymerase I. Joyce, C.M., Kelley, W.S., Grindley, N.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Ascorbate enhances u.v.-mutagenesis in E. coli but inhibits it in Chinese hamster cells. Rossman, T.G., Klein, C.B., Naslund, M. Carcinogenesis (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Further characterization of an E. coli strain resistant to the toxic and mutagenic action of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II). Villani, G., Lherisson, C., Defais, M., Johnson, N.P. Mutat. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. The involvement of an E. coli multiprotein complex in the complete repair of UV-damaged DNA. Grossman, L., Caron, P.R., Oh, E.Y. Basic Life Sci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Inhibition of DNA replication initiation by aminoglycoside antibiotics. Matsunaga, K., Yamaki, H., Nishimura, T., Tanaka, N. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Induction of oxygen-dependent lethal damage by monochromatic UVB (313 nm) radiation: strand breakage, repair and cell death. Miguel, A.G., Tyrrell, R.M. Carcinogenesis (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies in Escherichia coli analyzed by recombination at the dif resolvase site. Steiner, W.W., Kuempel, P.L. J. Bacteriol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Toxicity, mutagenesis and stress responses induced in Escherichia coli by hydrogen peroxide. Linn, S., Imlay, J.A. J. Cell Sci. Suppl. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Synergistic killing of Escherichia coli K-12 by UV (254 nm) and H2O2. Leitão, A.C., Carvalho, R.E. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. Relat. Stud. Phys. Chem. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. The effect of catalase on recovery of heat-injured DNA-repair mutants of Escherichia coli. Mackey, B.M., Seymour, D.A. J. Gen. Microbiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Purification and properties of the 5'-3' exonuclease D190-->a mutant of DNA polymerase I from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Amblar, M., López, P. Eur. J. Biochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
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