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Gene Review

ilvE  -  branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK3762, JW5606
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Disease relevance of ilvE


High impact information on ilvE

  • Evidence that this promoter coupling is DNA supercoiling-dependent is provided by the observation that a novobiocin-induced decrease in global negative superhelicity results in an increase in ilvY promoter activity and a decrease in ilvC promoter activity predicted by the in vitro data [6].
  • It does, however, cause a conformational change of the IlvY protein-DNA complex, which is correlated with the partial relief of an IlvY protein-induced bend of the DNA helix in the ilvC promoter region [7].
  • In this report, we use topoisomer sets of defined superhelical densities as DNA templates in a purified in vitro transcription system to demonstrate transcriptional coupling between the divergently transcribed ilvY and ilvC promoters of the ilvYC operon of Escherichia coli [8].
  • Most significantly, this work establishes the contribution of the internal promoter (ilvEp, located downstream of the polar site) to the expression of the downstream genes in E. coli K12 wild-type and mutant strains (ilvG) and by extension to the role of this promoter in S. typhimurium [9].
  • Transcriptional polarity enhances the contribution of the internal promoter, ilvEp, in the expression of the ilvGMEDA operon in wild-type Escherichia coli K12 [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of ilvE


Biological context of ilvE

  • It was previously determined that the distal portion of the ilvGMEDA operon was expressed despite the insertion of transposons into ilvG and ilvE [15].
  • The DNA sequence of the 570 base pairs that precedes and includes the beginning of the ilvE gene shows no evidence of a leader-attenuator region [1].
  • Estimates of the transcriptional role of the internal promoter on ilvE gene expression during growth conditions in excess and limiting branch chain amino acids is presented [16].
  • The replication origin is located approximately 30 kb from the ilvE gene and 20 kb from the rrnC 16S rRNA cistron [17].
  • ilvE gene of Escherichia coli was inserted into the region downstream of the tac promotor [18].

Associations of ilvE with chemical compounds


Other interactions of ilvE

  • The ilvGMEDA operon of Escherichia coli K-12 contains an internal promoter, PE, in the distal portion of the ilvM gene immediately upstream from the ilvE gene [16].
  • It was concluded that the genes ilvE, ilvD and ilvA constitute a single operon and are transcribed from E to A [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ilvE


  1. The nucleotide sequence preceding and including the beginning of the ilvE gene of the ilvGEDA operon of Escherichia coli K12. Lawther, R.P., Nichols, B., Zurawski, G., Hatfield, G.W. Nucleic Acids Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation and analysis of two Escherichia coli K-12 ilv attenuator deletion mutants with high-level constitutive expression of an ilv-lac fusion operon. Bennett, D.C., Umbarger, H.E. J. Bacteriol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Gene cloning, sequencing, and inactivation of the branched-chain aminotransferase of Lactococcus lactis LM0230. Atiles, M.W., Dudley, E.G., Steele, J.L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. In vitro synthesis of beta-galactosidase with ilv-lac fusion deoxyribonucleic acid as template. Wild, J., Smith, J.M., Umbarger, H.E. J. Bacteriol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  5. Amino acid sequence of Salmonella typhimurium branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase. Feild, M.J., Nguyen, D.C., Armstrong, F.B. Biochemistry (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Transcriptional coupling between the divergent promoters of a prototypic LysR-type regulatory system, the ilvYC operon of Escherichia coli. Rhee, K.Y., Opel, M., Ito, E., Hung, S., Arfin, S.M., Hatfield, G.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Activation of gene expression by a ligand-induced conformational change of a protein-DNA complex. Rhee, K.Y., Senear, D.F., Hatfield, G.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. DNA supercoiling-dependent transcriptional coupling between the divergently transcribed promoters of the ilvYC operon of Escherichia coli is proportional to promoter strengths and transcript lengths. Opel, M.L., Hatfield, G.W. Mol. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Transcriptional polarity enhances the contribution of the internal promoter, ilvEp, in the expression of the ilvGMEDA operon in wild-type Escherichia coli K12. Lopes, J.M., Soliman, N., Smith, P.K., Lawther, R.P. Mol. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. A functional leuABCD operon is required for leucine synthesis by the tyrosine-repressible transaminase in Escherichia coli K-12. Vartak, N.B., Liu, L., Wang, B.M., Berg, C.M. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Mutations affecting the formation of acetohydroxy acid synthase II in Escherichia coli K-12. Smith, J.M., Smith, F.J., Umbarger, H.E. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. Structures of Escherichia coli branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase and its complexes with 4-methylvalerate and 2-methylleucine: induced fit and substrate recognition of the enzyme. Okada, K., Hirotsu, K., Hayashi, H., Kagamiyama, H. Biochemistry (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Synthesis of alpha, beta-deuterated 15N amino acids using a coupled glutamate dehydrogenase-branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase system. Chanatry, J.A., Schafer, P.H., Kim, M.S., LeMaster, D.M. Anal. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase from Escherichia coli. Kamitori, S., Odagaki, Y., Inoue, K., Kuramitsu, S., Kagamiyama, H., Matsuura, Y., Higuchi, T. J. Biochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Analysis and comparison of the internal promoter, pE, of the ilvGMEDA operons from Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. Lopes, J.M., Lawther, R.P. Nucleic Acids Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Examination of the internal promoter, PE, in the ilvGMEDA operon of E. coli K-12. Wek, R.C., Hatfield, G.W. Nucleic Acids Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Map location of the Escherichia coli origin of replication. Marsh, R.C. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase of Escherichia coli: overproduction and properties. Inoue, K., Kuramitsu, S., Aki, K., Watanabe, Y., Takagi, T., Nishigai, M., Ikai, A., Kagamiyama, H. J. Biochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Escherichia coli mutants deficient in the aspartate and aromatic amino acid aminotransferases. Gelfand, D.H., Steinberg, R.A. J. Bacteriol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  20. Crystal structures of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase complexed with glutamate and glutarate: true reaction intermediate and double substrate recognition of the enzyme. Goto, M., Miyahara, I., Hayashi, H., Kagamiyama, H., Hirotsu, K. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Polarity and the regulation of the ilv gene cluster in Escherichia coli strain K-12. Smith, J.M., Smolin, D.E., Umbarger, H.E. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
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