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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Amination

  • Tetanus toxoid was conjugated to the polysaccharide by reductive amination, via the free aldehyde groups present on the partially oxidized sialic acid residues [1].
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide (PRP) was selectively hydrolyzed to reducing oligosaccharides, and the fraction containing 3-10 ribosylribitolphosphate repeating units (VS) was conjugated by reductive amination to diphtheria toxin (DTx), its nontoxic derivative CRM197 (Dcr), or diphtheria toxoid (DTd) [2].
  • Escherichia coli S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. Subunit structure, reductive amination, and NH2-terminal sequences [3].
  • Reducing oligosaccharides from the Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polymer (PRP) coupled by reductive amination to diphtheria toxoids (DTd) had been shown to elicit potentially protective serum anti-PRP antibodies (Ab) in infants too young for an adequate response to PRP vaccine [4].
  • Serologically reactive O-polysaccharide from nine serotypes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were covalently linked to toxin A via reductive amination, with adipic acid dihydrazide serving as a spacer molecule [5].

Psychiatry related information on Amination


High impact information on Amination

  • Isomaltose oligosaccharides varying in size from two sugars, isomaltose (IM2), to seven sugars, isomaltohepatose (IM7), were coupled to stearylamine by reductive amination with sodium cyanoborohydride [7].
  • Type III polysaccharide was covalently coupled to beta C protein by reductive amination [8].
  • Editing the stereochemical elements in an iridium catalyst for enantioselective allylic amination [9].
  • The receptor specificity of the plant seed toxin ricin, which ordinarily binds to galactose-containing receptors, has been altered by coupling monophosphopentamannose residues to ricin by reductive amination and by reversibly binding lactose to the modified ricin [10].
  • The optimal procedure involved ozone cleavage of the double bond of GD3 in the ceramide backbone, introducing an aldehyde group, and coupling to aminolysyl groups of proteins by reductive amination [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Amination


Biological context of Amination


Anatomical context of Amination


Associations of Amination with chemical compounds


Gene context of Amination


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Amination

  • Oligosaccharides were derivatized by reductive amination with benzylamine followed by N,N-dimethylation with methyl iodide and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) and MALDI post-source decay (PSD) TOFMS [36].
  • After high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with ion suppression, collected oligosaccharides were analyzed by fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry after conversion to permethyl derivatives or after reductive amination with rho-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester [37].
  • High affinity heparin oligosaccharides (HA-heparin, anti-factor Xa activity of 592 +/- 120 IU/mg) prepared by partial deaminative cleavage of commercial crude heparin and fractionated by agarose-ATIII affinity chromatography, were immobilized to surface-modified PE by reductive amination [38].
  • Selective purification of reduced oligosaccharides using a phenylboronic acid bond elut column: potential application in HPLC, mass spectrometry, reductive amination procedures and antigenic/serum analysis [39].
  • The depolymerization of heparin resulted in a loss of biological activity which outweighed the increase in the terminal amine groups (produced by reductive amination), that were used for glutaraldehyde immobilization to the PVA [40].


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  2. Immunogens consisting of oligosaccharides from the capsule of Haemophilus influenzae type b coupled to diphtheria toxoid or the toxin protein CRM197. Anderson, P., Pichichero, M.E., Insel, R.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Escherichia coli S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. Subunit structure, reductive amination, and NH2-terminal sequences. Anton, D.L., Kutny, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
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  8. Maternal immunization of mice with group B streptococcal type III polysaccharide-beta C protein conjugate elicits protective antibody to multiple serotypes. Madoff, L.C., Paoletti, L.C., Tai, J.Y., Kasper, D.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Editing the stereochemical elements in an iridium catalyst for enantioselective allylic amination. Leitner, A., Shu, C., Hartwig, J.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Ricin linked to monophosphopentamannose binds to fibroblast lysosomal hydrolase receptors, resulting in a cell-type-specific toxin. Youle, R.J., Murray, G.J., Neville, D.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
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  13. A functional leuABCD operon is required for leucine synthesis by the tyrosine-repressible transaminase in Escherichia coli K-12. Vartak, N.B., Liu, L., Wang, B.M., Berg, C.M. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. The effect of polysialylation on the immunogenicity and antigenicity of asparaginase: implication in its pharmacokinetics. Fernandes, A.I., Gregoriadis, G. International journal of pharmaceutics. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of conjugation methodology on the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of meningococcal group C polysaccharide-P64k protein conjugates. Carmenate, T., Canaán, L., Alvarez, A., Delgado, M., González, S., Menéndez, T., Rodés, L., Guillén, G. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine. Suzukake, K., Tokunaga, K., Hayashi, H., Hori, M., Uehara, Y., Ikeda, D., Umezawa, H. J. Antibiot. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Properties of crystalline leucine dehydrogenase from Bacillus sphaericus. Ohshima, T., Misono, H., Soda, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. The glutamine hydrolysis function of human GMP synthetase. Identification of an essential active site cysteine. Nakamura, J., Straub, K., Wu, J., Lou, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Synthesis of Indoles via 6pi-Electrocyclic Ring Closures of Trienecarbamates. Greshock, T.J., Funk, R.L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Free radical-mediated aryl amination and its use in a convergent [3 + 2] strategy for enantioselective indoline alpha-amino acid synthesis. Viswanathan, R., Prabhakaran, E.N., Plotkin, M.A., Johnston, J.N. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Substrate specificity of the 3-methylaspartate ammonia-lyase reaction: observation of differential relative reaction rates for substrate-product pairs. Botting, N.P., Akhtar, M., Cohen, M.A., Gani, D. Biochemistry (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Glutamate dehydrogenase reaction as a source of glutamic acid in synaptosomes. Yudkoff, M., Nissim, I., Nelson, D., Lin, Z.P., Erecińska, M. J. Neurochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase in regulation of urea synthesis in rat hepatocytes. Petcu, L.G., Plaut, G.W. Biochem. J. (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Ammonia uptake by skeletal muscle in the hyperammonaemic rat. Hod, G., Chaouat, M., Haskel, Y., Lernau, O.Z., Nissan, S., Mayer, M. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. (1982) [Pubmed]
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  30. Carbon 13 NMR study of nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with selected amino acids and of related reactions. Dalling, D.K., Grant, D.M., Horton, W.J., Sagers, R.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  31. Biosynthesis of 5-hydroxybenzimidazolylcobamid (factor III) in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Eisenreich, W., Bacher, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. Cloning and verification of the Lactococcus lactis pyrG gene and characterization of the gene product, CTP synthase. Wadskov-Hansen, S.L., Willemoës, M., Martinussen, J., Hammer, K., Neuhard, J., Larsen, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
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