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Gene Review

glnA  -  glutamine synthetase

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK3863, JW3841
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Disease relevance of glnA


High impact information on glnA


Chemical compound and disease context of glnA


Biological context of glnA

  • The result underscores the importance of proper regulation of GS activity for cell growth [3].
  • All of these results strongly imply that elevated GS activity is the causative basis for the poor growth seen in R. rubrum mutants lacking P(II) and presumably in mutants of some other organisms with similar genotypes [3].
  • Mutants which synthesized a high level of glutamine synthetase in the presence of ammonia (GlnC phenotype) were selected as revertants of a strain with a Tn10 insertion in glnD and were mapped with chromosomal deletions [15].
  • Complementation experiments with multicopy plasmids encoding NRII or PII showed that suppression by GlnC glnL alleles was eliminated upon introduction of the plasmid encoding NRII but was not affected by introduction of the plasmid encoding PII [16].
  • The gene order is glnA-glnL-glnG, transcribed from left to right [15].

Associations of glnA with chemical compounds

  • The differential sensitivities of GlnC and wild-type strains to low concentrations (0.1 mM) of the glutamine analog L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine supported the conclusion that the synthesis of a glutamine permease was also positively controlled by GS [17].
  • Among revertants of these Asm- strains selected on one of these compounds (e.g., arginine, proline, or gamma-aminobutyrate) were those that produce glutamine synthetase (GS) constitutively (GlnC phenotype) [17].
  • Strain JB674 grown in glucose medium containing ammonia as the nitrogen source has reduced levels of glutamine synthetase that is more adenylylated than in the parent strain, suggesting that the enzyme can not be deadenylylated normally [18].
  • These compounds display inhibition of bacterial GS that is competitive vs L-glutamate, with Ki values in the low micromolar range [13].
  • ATP was required for inactivation; the nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue AMP-PCP failed to support inhibition of GS by the phosphinothricins [13].

Physical interactions of glnA


Regulatory relationships of glnA

  • Here we describe the isolation and characterization of missense mutations in glnL that suppress the Ntr- phenotype resulting from a leaky glnD mutation [16].
  • Since no adenylation of the GS is detectable GS bistability seems to be regulated on the level of enzyme synthesis like GDH bistability [20].

Other interactions of glnA


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of glnA


  1. Transcription of glnA in E. coli is stimulated by activator bound to sites far from the promoter. Reitzer, L.J., Magasanik, B. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Tandem promoters determine regulation of the Klebsiella pneumoniae glutamine synthetase (glnA) gene. Dixon, R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. The poor growth of Rhodospirillum rubrum mutants lacking PII proteins is due to an excess of glutamine synthetase activity. Zhang, Y., Pohlmann, E.L., Conrad, M.C., Roberts, G.P. Mol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Temperature and oxygen regulated expression of a glutamine synthetase gene from Vibrio alginolyticus cloned in Escherichia coli. Maharaj, R., Robb, F.T., Woods, D.R. Arch. Microbiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. The genes of the glutamine synthetase adenylylation cascade are not regulated by nitrogen in Escherichia coli. van Heeswijk, W.C., Rabenberg, M., Westerhoff, H.V., Kahn, D. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Covalent modification of the glnG product, NRI, by the glnL product, NRII, regulates the transcription of the glnALG operon in Escherichia coli. Ninfa, A.J., Magasanik, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Physical and genetic characterization of the glnA--glnG region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. Backman, K., Chen, Y.M., Magasanik, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of mutations in Escherichia coli glnL (ntrB), encoding nitrogen regulator II (NRII or NtrB), on the phosphatase activity involved in bacterial nitrogen regulation. Kamberov, E.S., Atkinson, M.R., Chandran, P., Ninfa, A.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Isolation and characterization of a novel glutamine synthetase from Rhizobium meliloti. Shatters, R.G., Liu, Y., Kahn, M.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Cascade control of Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase. Purification and properties of PII protein and nucleotide sequence of its structural gene. Son, H.S., Rhee, S.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Lack of a regulatory function for glutamine synthetase protein in the synthesis of glutamate dehydrogenase and nitrite reductase in Escherichia coli K12. Newman, B.M., Cole, J.A. J. Gen. Microbiol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. Glutamine synthetase and heteroresistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Strandén, A.M., Roos, M., Berger-Bächi, B. Microb. Drug Resist. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Inhibition of Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase by alpha- and gamma-substituted phosphinothricins. Logusch, E.W., Walker, D.M., McDonald, J.F., Franz, J.E., Villafranca, J.J., DiIanni, C.L., Colanduoni, J.A., Li, B., Schineller, J.B. Biochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Derepressed levels of glutamate synthase and glutamine synthetase in Escherichia coli mutants altered in glutamyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase. Lapointe, J., Delcuve, G., Duplain, L. J. Bacteriol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Fine-structure deletion map and complementation analysis of the glnA-glnL-glnG region in Escherichia coli. MacNeil, T., MacNeil, D., Tyler, B. J. Bacteriol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization of Escherichia coli glnL mutations affecting nitrogen regulation. Atkinson, M.R., Ninfa, A.J. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. gltB gene and regulation of nitrogen metabolism by glutamine synthetase in Escherichia coli. Pahel, G., Zelenetz, A.D., Tyler, B.M. J. Bacteriol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of Salmonella typhimurium mutants with altered glutamine synthetase activity. Funanage, V.L., Brenchley, J.E. Genetics (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Cloning and characterization of gdhA, the structural gene for glutamate dehydrogenase of Salmonella typhimurium. Miller, E.S., Brenchley, J.E. J. Bacteriol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Regulation of ammonia assimilation in ammonia-limited chemostat cultures of Escherichia coli ML 30: evidence of bistability. Müller, P.J., von Frommannshausen, B., Schütz, H. Z. Allg. Mikrobiol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Role of glnB and glnD gene products in regulation of the glnALG operon of Escherichia coli. Bueno, R., Pahel, G., Magasanik, B. J. Bacteriol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Nitrogen regulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum: isolation of genes involved and biochemical characterization of corresponding proteins. Jakoby, M., Krämer, R., Burkovski, A. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. The glutamine synthetase of Prevotella bryantii B(1)4 is a family III enzyme (GlnN) and glutamine supports growth of mutants lacking glutamate dehydrogenase activity. Wen, Z.T., Peng, L., Morrison, M. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
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