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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Pronation


High impact information on Pronation

  • The monkey generated isometric torques in flexion/extension, radial/ulnar deviation, pronation/supination, and executed a power grip that co-contracted wrist flexor and extensor muscles [6].
  • Patients with a pronation/flexion pattern of dystonia showed the best and the most sustained improvement [7].
  • Pronation of mechanically ventilated COPD patients exhibits applicability and effectiveness and improves oxygenation and sigh-L mechanics versus semirecumbent ("gold standard") positioning [2].
  • Limb coordination was assessed with parametric measurements of foot tapping (FT), alternating pronation and supination (PS), and sequential finger to thumb tapping (FTH) [8].
  • The investigation examined isokinetic (IK) and nonisokinetic (NIK) strength training programs for the inversion (INV) and eversion (EV) muscles on pronation during running [9].

Anatomical context of Pronation


Associations of Pronation with chemical compounds

  • With cadaver forearms, on the average, angulation of 10 degrees of the radius or ulna in coronal or sagittal planes limited pronation and supination by less than 24 degrees, whereas angulation of 10 degrees of both the radius and the ulna limited pronation and supination by less than 18% [15].
  • However, there were significant differences in both the magnitude and the time to maximum pronation between the two firmer midsole conditions (C1 and C2) and the softer midsole condition (C3), indicating a nonlinear trend for these parameters [16].
  • This report presents a newly developed orthosis giving active pronation of the forearm for a C6 complete tetraplegic [17].
  • An orthosis for a C5 complete tetrapletic providing active extension and pronation of the forearm is presented [18].
  • The Foot Posture Index is a new multidimensional and multiplanar tool aimed at quantifying the degree of pronation to supination of the foot, comprising eight criteria that sum to produce a final "score" of foot posture [19].

Gene context of Pronation

  • Motion of the shank in the transverse plane is coupled with pronation and supination of the rearfoot, and so its motion relative to the foot can be used as an indicator of the pattern of motion in the rearfoot [20].
  • The maximum change of pronation was (a) 13.7 +/- 3.7 degrees, barefoot; (b) 14.1 +/- 3.8 degrees for the shoe with windows and 12.1 +/- 3.7 degrees for the heel inside these shoes; and 14.9 +/- 4.2 degrees for the shoes with no windows [21].
  • Further analyses revealed that with increasing log MnB (Simple regression: p < 0.05) performance on a pointing task was poorer, frequency dispersion of hand-arm tremor decreased, while harmonic index increased, and the velocity of a pronation/supination arm movement was slower [22].
  • The authors suggest that excessive pronation is the causative factor directing asynchronous rotation between the shank and femur [23].
  • In Part II, 13 additional hands were studied to evaluate the static restraints to rotation and subluxation, showing that variability in the amount of volar subluxation and pronation was possible in the intact thumb [24].


  1. The effects of shoes on the torsion and rearfoot motion in running. Stacoff, A., Kälin, X., Stüssi, E. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Prone position improves lung mechanical behavior and enhances gas exchange efficiency in mechanically ventilated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Mentzelopoulos, S.D., Zakynthinos, S.G., Roussos, C., Tzoufi, M.J., Michalopoulos, A.S. Anesth. Analg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of antipronation tape and temporary orthotic on vertical navicular height before and after exercise. Vicenzino, B., Griffiths, S.R., Griffiths, L.A., Hadley, A. The Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Surgery for cerebral palsy: Part 1. Classification and operative procedures for pronation deformity. Gschwind, C., Tonkin, M. Journal of hand surgery (Edinburgh, Lothian) (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita: report of a case of amyoplasia. Yang, M.T., Chen, C.H., Mak, S.C., Wu, K.H., Chi, C.S. Zhonghua Minguo xiao er ke yi xue hui za zhi [Journal]. Zhonghua Minguo xiao er ke yi xue hui (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Roles of primate spinal interneurons in preparation and execution of voluntary hand movement. Fetz, E.E., Perlmutter, S.I., Prut, Y., Seki, K., Votaw, S. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Factors predicting improvement in motor disability in writer's cramp treated with botulinum toxin. Djebbari, R., du Montcel, S.T., Sangla, S., Vidal, J.S., Gallouedec, G., Vidailhet, M. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Equilibrium and limb coordination in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Franssen, E.H., Souren, L.E., Torossian, C.L., Reisberg, B. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Strength training effects on rearfoot motion in running. Feltner, M.E., MacRae, H.S., MacRae, P.G., Turner, N.S., Hartman, C.A., Summers, M.L., Welch, M.D. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of hand position on digit and ulnar artery vasoconstrictor reflexes. Wilder-Smith, E.P., Liurong, L., Guo, Y. Clin. Auton. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Anatomic determinants of first metatarsophalangeal flexion moments in hallux valgus. Saltzman, C.L., Aper, R.L., Brown, T.D. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Sarcomere length varies with wrist ulnar deviation but not forearm pronation in the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle. Ljung, B.O., Fridén, J., Lieber, R.L. Journal of biomechanics. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Attritional rupture of flexor tendons by the head of the ulna associated with a chronic longitudinal radioulnar dissociation. Moritomo, H., Masatomi, T., Tada, K. Journal of hand surgery (Edinburgh, Lothian) (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Congenital radioulnar synostosis in an active duty soldier: case report and literature review. Lescault, E., Mulligan, J., Williams, G. Military medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Angular deformities and forearm function. Sarmiento, A., Ebramzadeh, E., Brys, D., Tarr, R. J. Orthop. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Timing of lower extremity joint actions during treadmill running. Hamill, J., Bates, B.T., Holt, K.G. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. A dynamic pronation orthosis for the C6 tetraplegic arm. Hokken, W., Kalkman, S., Blanken, W.C., van Asbeck, F.W. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. A functional splint for the C5 tetraplegic arm. Abrahams, D., Shrosbree, R.D., Key, A.G. Paraplegia. (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Criterion validation of four criteria of the foot posture index. Scharfbillig, R., Evans, A.M., Copper, A.W., Williams, M., Scutter, S., Iasiello, H., Redmond, A. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Shank rotation: A measure of rearfoot motion during normal walking. Nester, C.J., Hutchins, S., Bowker, P. Foot & ankle international / American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society [and] Swiss Foot and Ankle Society. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. The movement of the heel within a running shoe. Stacoff, A., Reinschmidt, C., Stüssi, E. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Manganese neurotoxicity, a continuum of dysfunction: results from a community based study. Mergler, D., Baldwin, M., Bélanger, S., Larribe, F., Beuter, A., Bowler, R., Panisset, M., Edwards, R., de Geoffroy, A., Sassine, M.P., Hudnell, K. Neurotoxicology (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Excessive pronation: a major biomechanical determinant in the development of chondromalacia and pelvic lists. Rothbart, B.A., Estabrook, L. Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. The anatomy of the radial side of the thumb: static restraints in preventing subluxation and rotation after injury. Lyons, R.P., Kozin, S.H., Failla, J.M. Am J. Orthop. (1998) [Pubmed]
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