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MeSH Review

Cerebral Palsy

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Disease relevance of Cerebral Palsy


Psychiatry related information on Cerebral Palsy


High impact information on Cerebral Palsy

  • More on prenatal magnesium sulfate and risk of cerebral palsy [11].
  • Intrathecal baclofen for spasticity in cerebral palsy [12].
  • These findings suggest that caspase inhibitors may be able to provide benefit over a prolonged therapeutic window after hypoxic-ischemic events in the developing brain, a major contributor to static encephalopathy and cerebral palsy [13].
  • VIP and neurotrophic analogs, acting through a cAMP-independent mechanism and inducing ADNF release, could represent new avenues in the understanding and prevention of human cerebral palsy [14].
  • INTERPRETATION: Our study suggests that children born after IVF have an increased risk of developing neurological problems, especially cerebral palsy [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cerebral Palsy

  • The prevalence at school age of cerebral palsy and severe education subnormality in children of low birthweight (less than or equal to 4 lb=1814 g) born to residents in the region served by the South East Thames Regional Health Authority in the early 1970s was compared with that in children of the same birthweight born in 1950-53 [16].
  • Methylphenidate for cerebral palsy with choreoathetosis [17].
  • Motor benefit from levodopa in spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy [2].
  • Perinatal white matter lesions associated with cerebral palsy appears to involve glutamate excitotoxicity and excess free radical production [18].
  • Concerns about their long-term neurodevelopmental consequences arose in the late 1990s when follow-up of randomised controlled trials indicated an increased risk of cerebral palsy after postnatal dexamethasone exposure [19].

Biological context of Cerebral Palsy


Anatomical context of Cerebral Palsy


Gene context of Cerebral Palsy

  • Intracerebral injection of the glutamatergic analogue ibotenate to newborn mice induces cortical plate and white matter lesions mimicking the brain damage associated with cerebral palsy, and pretreatment with proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1-beta or with interleukin-9 significantly exacerbates these lesions [30].
  • These findings suggest that EPO may provide benefit after hypoxic-ischemic events in the developing brain, a major contributor to static encephalopathy and cerebral palsy [31].
  • Possible correlation between high levels of IL-18 in the cord blood of pre-term infants and neonatal development of periventricular leukomalacia and cerebral palsy [32].
  • Serum prealbumin and albumin concentrations do not reflect nutritional state in children with cerebral palsy [33].
  • Preliminary results demonstrate an increase in IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha in those children who are deceased at 1 year or who have a diagnosis of cerebral palsy versus those with normal neuromotor outcome [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cerebral Palsy


  1. Trak1 mutation disrupts GABA(A) receptor homeostasis in hypertonic mice. Gilbert, S.L., Zhang, L., Forster, M.L., Anderson, J.R., Iwase, T., Soliven, B., Donahue, L.R., Sweet, H.O., Bronson, R.T., Davisson, M.T., Wollmann, R.L., Lahn, B.T. Nat. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Motor benefit from levodopa in spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy. Brunstrom, J.E., Bastian, A.J., Wong, M., Mink, J.W. Ann. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Risk factors for complex partial seizures: a population-based case-control study. Rocca, W.A., Sharbrough, F.W., Hauser, W.A., Annegers, J.F., Schoenberg, B.S. Ann. Neurol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Factor V Leiden mutation: an unrecognized cause of hemiplegic cerebral palsy, neonatal stroke, and placental thrombosis. Thorarensen, O., Ryan, S., Hunter, J., Younkin, D.P. Ann. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Age at onset of seizures in young children. Ellenberg, J.H., Hirtz, D.G., Nelson, K.B. Ann. Neurol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Prenatal magnesium sulfate exposure and the risk for cerebral palsy or mental retardation among very low-birth-weight children aged 3 to 5 years. Schendel, D.E., Berg, C.J., Yeargin-Allsopp, M., Boyle, C.A., Decoufle, P. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Risk of mental retardation among children born with birth defects. Jelliffe-Pawlowski, L.L., Shaw, G.M., Nelson, V., Harris, J.A. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Recognition and management of fetal alcohol syndrome. Burd, L., Cotsonas-Hassler, T.M., Martsolf, J.T., Kerbeshian, J. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Vitamin B12 deficiency in adolescents and young adults with phenylketonuria. Hanley, W.B., Feigenbaum, A.S., Clarke, J.T., Schoonheyt, W.E., Austin, V.J. Eur. J. Pediatr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. MMPI characteristics associated with cerebral palsy and dystonia musculorum deformans. Imperio, A.M., Cullinan, T.F., Riklan, M. Perceptual and motor skills. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. More on prenatal magnesium sulfate and risk of cerebral palsy. Nelson, K.B., Grether, J.K. JAMA (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Intrathecal baclofen for spasticity in cerebral palsy. Albright, A.L., Cervi, A., Singletary, J. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Caspase inhibitor affords neuroprotection with delayed administration in a rat model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Cheng, Y., Deshmukh, M., D'Costa, A., Demaro, J.A., Gidday, J.M., Shah, A., Sun, Y., Jacquin, M.F., Johnson, E.M., Holtzman, D.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Vasoactive intestinal peptide prevents excitotoxic cell death in the murine developing brain. Gressens, P., Marret, S., Hill, J.M., Brenneman, D.E., Gozes, I., Fridkin, M., Evrard, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Neurological sequelae in children born after in-vitro fertilisation: a population-based study. Strömberg, B., Dahlquist, G., Ericson, A., Finnström, O., Köster, M., Stjernqvist, K. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Cerebral palsy and severe educational subnormality in low-birthweight children: a comparison of births in 1951-53 and 1970-73. Alberman, E., Benson, J., McDonald, A. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Methylphenidate for cerebral palsy with choreoathetosis. Boogerd, W., Beijnen, J.H. Ann. Intern. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Melatoninergic neuroprotection of the murine periventricular white matter against neonatal excitotoxic challenge. Husson, I., Mesplès, B., Bac, P., Vamecq, J., Evrard, P., Gressens, P. Ann. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Management of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in infants: guidelines for corticosteroid use. Grier, D.G., Halliday, H.L. Drugs (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Prevalence and health impact of developmental disabilities in US children. Boyle, C.A., Decouflé, P., Yeargin-Allsopp, M. Pediatrics (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Province-based study of neurologic disability of children weighing 500 through 1249 grams at birth in relation to neonatal cerebral ultrasound findings. Aziz, K., Vickar, D.B., Sauve, R.S., Etches, P.C., Pain, K.S., Robertson, C.M. Pediatrics (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. No phenotype associated with established lipopolysaccharide model for cerebral palsy. Poggi, S.H., Park, J., Toso, L., Abebe, D., Roberson, R., Woodard, J.E., Spong, C.Y. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Gastric emptying in children with cerebral palsy and gastroesophageal reflux. Spiroglou, K., Xinias, I., Karatzas, N., Karatza, E., Arsos, G., Panteliadis, C. Pediatric neurology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Fetal stroke. Ozduman, K., Pober, B.R., Barnes, P., Copel, J.A., Ogle, E.A., Duncan, C.C., Ment, L.R. Pediatric neurology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Pathophysiological mechanisms in cerebral palsy. Milner-Brown, H.S., Penn, R.D. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1979) [Pubmed]
  26. Spastic diplegia as a complication of interferon Alfa-2a treatment of hemangiomas of infancy. Barlow, C.F., Priebe, C.J., Mulliken, J.B., Barnes, P.D., Mac Donald, D., Folkman, J., Ezekowitz, R.A. J. Pediatr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Can meconium in the amniotic fluid injure the fetal brain? Naeye, R.L. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Repeated prenatal corticosteroid administration delays myelination of the corpus callosum in fetal sheep. Huang, W.L., Harper, C.G., Evans, S.F., Newnham, J.P., Dunlop, S.A. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Deciduous teeth in tuberous sclerosis. Russell, B.G., Russell, M.B., Praetorius, F., Russell, C.A. Clin. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Effects of interleukin-10 on neonatal excitotoxic brain lesions in mice. Mesples, B., Plaisant, F., Gressens, P. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Erythropoietin exerts neuroprotective effect in neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Aydin, A., Genç, K., Akhisaroglu, M., Yorukoglu, K., Gokmen, N., Gonullu, E. Brain Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Possible correlation between high levels of IL-18 in the cord blood of pre-term infants and neonatal development of periventricular leukomalacia and cerebral palsy. Minagawa, K., Tsuji, Y., Ueda, H., Koyama, K., Tanizawa, K., Okamura, H., Hashimoto-Tamaoki, T. Cytokine (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Serum prealbumin and albumin concentrations do not reflect nutritional state in children with cerebral palsy. Lark, R.K., Williams, C.L., Stadler, D., Simpson, S.L., Henderson, R.C., Samson-Fang, L., Worley, G. J. Pediatr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Human perinatal asphyxia: correlation of neonatal cytokines with MRI and outcome. Foster-Barber, A., Dickens, B., Ferriero, D.M. Dev. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Startle epilepsy complicating Down syndrome during adulthood. Giménez-Roldán, S., Martín, M. Ann. Neurol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  36. Tocolytic magnesium sulfate exposure and risk of cerebral palsy among children with birth weights less than 1,750 grams. Boyle, C.A., Yeargin-Allsopp, M., Schendel, D.E., Holmgreen, P., Oakley, G.P. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. Correction of sagittal plane spinal deformities with unit rod instrumentation in children with cerebral palsy. Dabney, K.W., Miller, F., Lipton, G.E., Letonoff, E.J., McCarthy, H.C. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. The effect of cerebral palsy on the action of vecuronium with or without anticonvulsants. Hepaguşlar, H., Ozzeybek, D., Elar, Z. Anaesthesia. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Hospital care utilization of infants born after IVF. Ericson, A., Nygren, K.G., Olausson, P.O., Källén, B. Hum. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
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