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MeSH Review

Smear Layer

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High impact information on Smear Layer


Chemical compound and disease context of Smear Layer

  • SEM micrographs showed partial removal of one smear layer with EDTA and total removal of the smear layers with phosphoric acid [6].
  • The production of a root surface smear layer by instrumentation and its removal by citric acid [7].
  • SEM observations revealed that a 30-second application of Gluma Cleanser removes the smear layer totally [8].
  • BACKGROUND: The antibacterial and anticollagenolytic properties of tetracycline (TCN) are valuable in periodontal therapy, and TCN treatment can remove the smear layer following root instrumentation [3].
  • Effects of the smear layer, Copalite, and oxalate on microleakage [9].

Anatomical context of Smear Layer

  • METHODS: Smear-layer covered dentin specimens produced from sound premolars, were acid-etched and analyzed by micro-MIR FTIR spectroscopy, before and after treatment with the single-bottle adhesives One-Step, Prime and Bond 2.1, Scotchbond 1 and Syntac-Sprint [10].
  • After root canal biomechanical preparation and smear-layer removal, the teeth were stored individually, immersed in flasks containing 800 ml of ultra-pure deionized water for a period of 118 days [11].
  • The smear layer was removed and the samples were autoclaved and then incubated at 37 degrees C/5% CO2 for 24 h in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth containing 7.0 x 10(4) colony forming units per ml of E. faecalis [12].

Gene context of Smear Layer

  • SR was similar for both substrates and MTBS was greater when the adhesive was applied on the completely air-dried smear layer [13].
  • AIMS: To evaluate debris and smear layer scores after application of high-frequency electrical pulses produced by the Endox Endodontic System (Lysis Srl, Nova Milanese, Italy) on intact pulp tissue and organic and inorganic residues after endodontic instrumentation [14].
  • RESULTS: Acid-etching the dentin resulted in the removal of the smear layer for all materials tested [15].
  • Following acid etching of the dentinal surface with maleic acid/HEMA, the smear layer was removed, and a superficial zone was demineralized in such a way that the exposed collagenous dentin matrix retained its integrity [16].
  • The BSA or EMP application resulted in a surface morphology similar to that of a smear layer [5].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Smear Layer


  1. The effects of calcium hydroxide on dentin permeability. Pashley, D.H., Kalathoor, S., Burnham, D. J. Dent. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of saliva contamination on the microshear bond strength of one-step self-etching adhesive systems to dentin. Yoo, H.M., Oh, T.S., Pereira, P.N. Operative dentistry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Tetracycline at subcytotoxic levels inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 but does not remove the smear layer. Wang, Y., Morlandt, A.B., Xu, X., Carnes, D.L., Chen, Z., Steffensen, B. J. Periodontol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. A comparative SEM study of smear layer removal by detergents and EDTA on the root surface. Sampaio, J.E., Theodoro, L.H., Correa, M.A., Mendes, A.J. The International journal of periodontics & restorative dentistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Fibrin clot adhesion to dentin conditioned with protein constructs: an in vitro proof-of-principle study. Baker, D.L., Stanley Pavlow, S.A., Wikesjö, U.M. Journal of clinical periodontology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. The effect of dentin pre-treatment and heat-augmented cure on marginal gap formation of a dentin bonding agent. Zidan, O., Ross, G., Lee, I.K., Gomez-Marin, O., Yeh, S.H. Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. The production of a root surface smear layer by instrumentation and its removal by citric acid. Polson, A.M., Frederick, G.T., Ladenheim, S., Hanes, P.J. J. Periodontol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. A scanning electron microscopic and tensile bond strength evaluation of Gluma dentin bond application, as a function of dentinal pretreatment. Surmont, P., Martens, L., Mareels, S., Moors, M. Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of the smear layer, Copalite, and oxalate on microleakage. Pashley, D.H., Depew, D.D. Operative dentistry. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Heterogeneous distribution of single-bottle adhesive monomers in the resin-dentin interdiffusion zone. Eliades, G., Vougiouklakis, G., Palaghias, G. Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Influence on pH of vehicle containing glycerin used with calcium hydroxide. Camões, I.C., Salles, M.R., Chevitarese, O., Gomes, G.C. Dental traumatology : official publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. In vitro antimicrobial activity of various medication preparations on E. faecalis in root canal dentin. Lynne, R.E., Liewehr, F.R., West, L.A., Patton, W.R., Buxton, T.B., McPherson, J.C. Journal of endodontics. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of the hydration status of the smear layer on the wettability and bond strength of a self-etching primer to dentin. Toledano, M., Osorio, R., Moreira, M.A., Cabrerizo-Vilchez, M.A., Gea, P., Tay, F.R., Pashley, D.H. American journal of dentistry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. The effect of high-frequency electrical pulses on organic tissue in root canals. Lendini, M., Alemanno, E., Migliaretti, G., Berutti, E. International endodontic journal. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Evaluation of the interface between one-bottle bonding agents and dentin by cryopreparation and low-temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM). A pilot study on perfused dentinal samples. Kälin, C., Paul, S.J., Schärer, P., Düggelin, M., Mathys, D., Guggenheim, R. Journal of dentistry. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Dentin bonding: effect of tubule orientation on hybrid-layer formation. Schüpbach, P., Krejci, I., Lutz, F. Eur. J. Oral Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Scanning electron microscopy study of the effect of tetracycline HCl on smear layer removal and fibrin network formation. Delazari, F.M., Gerlach, R.F., Joly, J.C., de Lima, A.F. Brazilian dental journal. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. The effects of EDTA gel conditioning exposure time on periodontitis-affected human root surfaces: surface topography and PDL cell adhesion. Gamal, A.Y., Mailhot, J.M. Journal of the International Academy of Periodontology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. The effects of outward forced convective flow on inward diffusion in human dentine in vitro. Pashley, D.H., Matthews, W.G. Arch. Oral Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Effectiveness of EDTA and EDTA-T brushing on the removal of root surface smear layer. Sampaio, J.E., Rached, R.S., Pilatti, G.L., Theodoro, L.H., Batista, L.H. Pesquisa odontológica brasileira = Brazilian oral research. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Calcium oxalate smear layer: mineralogical and crystallographic study. Mongiorgi, R., Tateo, F., Monti, S., Prati, C., Bertocchi, G. Boll. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper. (1992) [Pubmed]
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