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Chemical Compound Review

Loeschkalk     calcium dihydroxide

Synonyms: Hydrated lime, Pickling lime, AGN-PC-0D67IQ, ACMC-1BE91, AG-D-62061, ...
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Disease relevance of CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

  • Shamma, a complex mixture of powdered tobacco, slaked lime, ash, oils, spices and other additives, has been linked to oral cancer in Saudi Arabia. Shamma varies in colour and odour due to the nature of the additives which characterize different brands [1].
  • The localized elevation of the frequency of micronuclei and cancer development is probably due to a synergistic effect of hyperthermia and tobacco-related carcinogens among reverse-cigar smokers, and to the close, prolonged contact between the mucosa and tobacco among Khaini-tobacco/slaked lime dippers [2].
  • Topical application of Ca(OH)2 paste to the smear layer reduced dentin permeability further, to levels 48% below that of untreated smear layers [3].
  • Also using Ca(OH)2 as a pH regulator, the antibiotic efficacy of tobramycin-impregnated PMMA was evaluated with respect to inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus growth [4].
  • With the exceptions of 8% H2O2, 1% Ca(OH)2, and 1% calcinated calcium that reduced populations by 3.2, 2.8, and 2.9 log10 CFU/g, respectively, none of treatments reduced the number of Salmonella by more than 2.2 log10 CFU/g without significantly reducing the seed germination percentage [5].

High impact information on CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

  • Treatment of acid-etched dentin with Ca(OH)2 produced a similar reduction in dentin permeability, which was restored to normal following acid challenge [3].
  • When the Ca(OH)2-treated smear layers were exposed to 6% citric acid for two min, dentin permeability returned to the initial acid-etched value, demonstrating that Ca(OH)2 offers little protection to acid challenge [3].
  • To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol) [6].
  • Three possible forms of calcium hydroxyl surface sites have been suggested and assigned to identical with CaOH, identical with Ca(OH)2-, and identical with CaOH2+, and their mutual ratios were found to vary as a function of pH [7].
  • The production of H2 has been examined in the gamma-ray and 5 MeV He ion radiolysis of CaCl2.2H2O, CaCl2.6H2O, Ca(OH)2, MgCl2.2H2O, MgCl2.6H2O, and Mg(OH)2 [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of CALCIUM HYDROXIDE


Biological context of CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

  • To obtain basic data for alkaline hydrolysis of these compounds as a novel remediation technology for contaminated soils, we investigated two soils (HTNT2, ELBP2) from two former ammunition plants in Germany. Hydrolysis was performed at pH 11 and pH 12 by addition of Ca(OH)2 [14].
  • The roots biomass increased with a factor 1.4 (soil amended with zeolite), 5.6 (soil amended with compost) and 4.8 (soil amended with Ca(OH)2) [15].
  • In Experiment 1, four ruminally fistulated Holsteins cows (X = 57 d of lactation) were fed four diets that contained 0, 20, 30, or 40% (dry basis) wheat straw treated with 3% NaOH plus 3% Ca(OH)2 in a 4 x 4 Latin square [16].
  • This work is aimed to investigate the effects of the adjustment of the electrical conductivity (kappa25) during the semicontinuous carbonation of Ca(OH)2 suspension (slaked lime) on the morphology of the precipitated calcite (CaCO3) particles [17].
  • The up-regulation of HSP70 protein expression in the oral mucosa of rats exposed to alkaline water, especially Ca(OH)2 treated rats, may indicate a protective response [18].

Anatomical context of CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

  • Even after the instrumentation and the use of Ca(OH)2, facultative anaerobes were detected in two root canals and yeasts in three [19].
  • Both Ca(OH)2 and activated charcoal should complex with phenolics in the forestomach, abomasum and intestines [20].
  • Calcium phosphate was formed on the surface-modified cellulose by first pre-soaking the materials in a saturated Ca(OH)2 and later in simulated body fluid (SBF) [21].
  • The healing capacity of mechanically exposed and bacterially contaminated dental pulps was assessed in monkeys after capping with 2 commercial Ca(OH)2 containing compounds [22].
  • - The pH values of the external aqueous medium, relative to the roots of 41 human premolar teeth filled with Ca(OH)2 in to several vehicles, were evaluated in the present study [23].

Associations of CALCIUM HYDROXIDE with other chemical compounds

  • For Ca(OH)2, at 3% loading, covalent BSA aggregation due to thioldisulfide interchange was observed (indicative of ionization of albumin's free thiol at high pH), whereas at 3% ZnCO3 or Ca3(PO4)2, a higher percentage of non-covalent aggregates was observed compared to Mg(OH)2 [24].
  • For the separation of beta-carotene isomers, most procedures employ either Ca(OH)2 or Vydac C18 columns [25].
  • The addition of slaked lime to the areca nut enhances the formation of NG during a chewing session [26].
  • At the end of the Fenton's pre-treatment, in order to permit a subsequent biological treatment, residual ferric ions were removed increasing the pH up to 8.5 by adding 3 gl(-1) of Ca(OH)2 and 3 mgl(-1) of a cationic polyelectrolyte, the latter as an aid to coagulation [27].
  • 8. The treatment of a contaminated soil slurry, 700 mg TNT kg-1, reduced CH3CN extractable TNT below 20 mg kg-1 at very low concentration of CaO2/Ca(OH)2, approximately 0.2%, w/w. Both oxidants do not lead to soil sterilization as the phosphorus added to neutralize the pH serves as a source of nutrient for the soil biomass [28].


  • Substantially more new dentine was present in teeth treated with hOP-1/CM than in those treated with Ca(OH)2 paste and the amount of reparative dentine formed was proportional to the amount of hOP-1/CM (P < 0.05) [29].
  • These findings suggest that Ca2+ in Ca(OH)2 specifically modulates osteopontin and BMP-2 levels during calcification in pulp [30].
  • Phosphorylated films not treated with Ca(OH)2 did not show any calcium phosphate growth upon immersion in SBF solution [31].
  • Hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) is often used as a dry sorbent for injection in a spray reactor to remove HCI [32].
  • Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) positivity was lost in 6/12 rats treated with Ca(OH)2 with pH 11.2, and loss of CD44 expression was seen in 3/6 rats in both study groups exposed to alkaline water with pH 12 [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

  • Such effect dramatically affects the reactivity and rheology of hydrated lime dispersions [33].
  • We synthesized a hydroxyapaite (HAp) and collagen (Col) composite by a simultaneous titration coprecipitation method using Ca(OH)2, H3PO4 and porcine atelocollagen as starting materials [34].
  • Biochemical and histological changes were reduced significantly in the harendong + Ca(OH)2 group and virtually absent from control groups [35].
  • The large quantity of hydrated lime added to the vat (10 kg/1000 l) interfered with the HPLC analysis of vat samples [36].
  • In this work, the physicochemical changes that take place in the corn hull during its cooking in a saturated solution of Ca(OH)2 were studied using infrared, X-ray diffraction, 13C cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR, confocal imaging microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetry techniques [37].


  1. Mint prevents shamma-induced carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouch. Samman, M.A., Bowen, I.D., Taiba, K., Antonius, J., Hannan, M.A. Carcinogenesis (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Localized formation of micronuclei in the oral mucosa and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in the saliva of "reverse" smokers, Khaini-tobacco chewers and gudakhu users. Stich, H.F., Parida, B.B., Brunnemann, K.D. Int. J. Cancer (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. The effects of calcium hydroxide on dentin permeability. Pashley, D.H., Kalathoor, S., Burnham, D. J. Dent. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Calcium hydroxide ameliorates tobramycin toxicity in cultured chick tibiae. Murakami, T., Murakami, H., Ramp, W.K., Hudson, M.C., Nousiainen, M.T. Bone (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparison of aqueous chemical treatments to eliminate Salmonella on alfalfa seeds. Weissinger, W.R., Beuchat, L.R. J. Food Prot. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management. McDonald, D.M., Webb, J.A., Taylor, J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. A spectroscopic study of calcium surface sites and adsorbed iron species at aqueous fluorapatite by means of (1)h and (31)p MAS NMR. Sandstr??m, D.E., Jarlbring, M., Antzutkin, O.N., Forsling, W. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. H2 and Cl2 production in the radiolysis of calcium and magnesium chlorides and hydroxides. LaVerne, J.A., Tandon, L. The journal of physical chemistry. A, Molecules, spectroscopy, kinetics, environment & general theory. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Combined effects of water activity, temperature and chemical treatments on the survival of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds. Beuchat, L.R., Scouten, A.J. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Efficacy of chemical treatments in eliminating Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on scarified and polished alfalfa seeds. Holliday, S.L., Scouten, A.J., Beuchat, L.R. J. Food Prot. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Efficacy of various intracanal medicaments against Enterococcus faecalis in primary teeth: an in vivo study. Onçaäg, O., Gogulu, D., Uzel, A. The Journal of clinical pediatric dentistry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Reduction of risks associated with fumonisin contamination in corn. Park, D.L., López-García, R., Trujillo-Preciado, S., Price, R.L. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Clinical performance of 3 endodontic sealers. Waltimo, T.M., Boiesen, J., Eriksen, H.M., Ørstavik, D. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of important nitroaromatic co-contaminants of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in highly contaminated soils. Emmrich, M. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Heavy metal immobilization by chemical amendments in a polluted soil and influence on white lupin growth. Castaldi, P., Santona, L., Melis, P. Chemosphere (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of wheat straw treated with alkali on ruminal function and lactational performance of dairy cows. Haddad, S.G., Grant, R.J., Kachman, S.D. J. Dairy Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Rhombohedral-scalenohedral calcite transition produced by adjusting the solution electrical conductivity in the system Ca(OH)2-CO2-H2O. García Carmona, J., Gómez Morales, J., Rodríguez Clemente, R. Journal of colloid and interface science. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Systemic and local effects of long-term exposure to alkaline drinking water in rats. Merne, M.E., Syrjänen, K.J., Syrjänen, S.M. International journal of experimental pathology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Microorganisms isolated from root canals presenting necrotic pulp and their drug susceptibility in vitro. Lana, M.A., Ribeiro-Sobrinho, A.P., Stehling, R., Garcia, G.D., Silva, B.K., Hamdan, J.S., Nicoli, J.R., Carvalho, M.A., Farias, L.d.e. .M. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Complexing of toxic hydrolysable tannins of yellow-wood (Terminalia oblongata) and harendong (Clidemia hirta) with reactive substances: an approach to preventing toxicity. Murdiati, T.B., McSweeney, C.S., Lowry, J.B. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Surface-engineered bacterial cellulose as template for crystallization of calcium phosphate. Bodin, A., Gustafsson, L., Gatenholm, P. Journal of biomaterials science. Polymer edition. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Capping of the dental pulp mechanically exposed to the oral microflora -- a 5 week observation of wound healing in the monkey. Cox, C.F., Bergenholtz, G., Fitzgerald, M., Heys, D.R., Heys, R.J., Avery, J.K., Baker, J.A. J. Oral Pathol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Influence on pH of vehicle containing glycerin used with calcium hydroxide. Camões, I.C., Salles, M.R., Chevitarese, O., Gomes, G.C. Dental traumatology : official publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Stabilization of proteins encapsulated in cylindrical poly(lactide-co-glycolide) implants: mechanism of stabilization by basic additives. Zhu, G., Schwendeman, S.P. Pharm. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Chromatographic analysis of cis/trans carotenoid isomers. O'Neil, C.A., Schwartz, S.J. J. Chromatogr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Oral lesions, genotoxicity and nitrosamines in betel quid chewers with no obvious increase in oral cancer risk. Stich, H.F., Rosin, M.P., Brunnemann, K.D. Cancer Lett. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Fenton's pre-treatment of mature landfill leachate. Lopez, A., Pagano, M., Volpe, A., Di Pinto, A.C. Chemosphere (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in water and soil slurry utilizing a calcium peroxide compound. Arienzo, M. Chemosphere (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Induction of reparative dentine formation in monkeys by recombinant human osteogenic protein-1. Rutherford, R.B., Wahle, J., Tucker, M., Rueger, D., Charette, M. Arch. Oral Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. The effect of extracellular calcium ion on gene expression of bone-related proteins in human pulp cells. Rashid, F., Shiba, H., Mizuno, N., Mouri, Y., Fujita, T., Shinohara, H., Ogawa, T., Kawaguchi, H., Kurihara, H. Journal of endodontics. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Porous calcium phosphate coating over phosphorylated chitosan film by a biomimetic method. Varma, H.K., Yokogawa, Y., Espinosa, F.F., Kawamoto, Y., Nishizawa, K., Nagata, F., Kameyama, T. Biomaterials (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Kinetic study of hydrated lime reaction with HCl. Yan, R., Chin, T., Liang, D.T., Laursen, K., Ong, W.Y., Yao, K., Tay, J.H. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Nanostructure and irreversible colloidal behavior of Ca(OH)2: implications in cultural heritage conservation. Rodriguez-Navarro, C., Ruiz-Agudo, E., Ortega-Huertas, M., Hansen, E. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Self-organization mechanism in a bone-like hydroxyapatite/collagen nanocomposite synthesized in vitro and its biological reaction in vivo. Kikuchi, M., Itoh, S., Ichinose, S., Shinomiya, K., Tanaka, J. Biomaterials (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Prevention of hydrolysable tannin toxicity in goats fed Clidemia hirta by calcium hydroxide supplementation. Murdiati, T.B., McSweeney, C.S., Campbell, R.S., Stoltz, D.S. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (1990) [Pubmed]
  36. Efficacy of amitraz (Taktic 12.5% EC) as a dip for the control of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle. George, J.E., Davey, R.B., Ahrens, E.H., Pound, J.M., Drummond, R.O. Prev. Vet. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Physicochemical changes in the hull of corn grains during their alkaline cooking. González, R., Reguera, E., Mendoza, L., Figueroa, J.M., Sánchez-Sinencio, F. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
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