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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Kernicterus


High impact information on Kernicterus


Chemical compound and disease context of Kernicterus


Biological context of Kernicterus


Anatomical context of Kernicterus


Gene context of Kernicterus

  • Interaction of coding region mutations and the Gilbert-type promoter abnormality of the UGT1A1 gene causes moderate degrees of unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia and may lead to neonatal kernicterus [25].
  • Thirty-six percent of the infants with G6PD deficiency died with presumed kernicterus, compared with only 3% (1/31) of the infants with a normal G6PD screening test result (p < 0.01) [26].
  • Three were healthy until the onset of their illness and one had a mild generalized choreoathetosis and dystonia due to kernicterus [27].
  • Kernicterus: effect on choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase activities in the brain of the Gunn rat [28].
  • Sensorineural hearing loss has long been known to be a clinical consequence of kernicterus [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Kernicterus


  1. Retrovirus-mediated expression of HUG Br1 in Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I human fibroblasts and correction of the genetic defect in Gunn rat hepatocytes. Askari, F., Hitomi, E., Thiney, M., Wilson, J.M. Gene Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Neonatal bilirubin toxicity. A review of kernicterus and the implications of drug-induced bilirubin displacement. Walker, P.C. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. A clinical pathologic reappraisal of kernicterus. Turkel, S.B., Miller, C.A., Guttenberg, M.E., Moynes, D.R., Godgman, J.E. Pediatrics (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Unbound bilirubin and kernicterus in low-birth-weight infants. Cashore, W.J., Oh, W. Pediatrics (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Prevention of bilirubin encephalopathy. Bertini, G., Dani, C., Pezzati, M., Rubaltelli, F.F. Biol. Neonate (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Kernicterus in an adult who is heterozygous for Crigler-Najjar syndrome and homozygous for Gilbert-type genetic defect. Chalasani, N., Chowdhury, N.R., Chowdhury, J.R., Boyer, T.D. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Induction of kernicterus by bucolome in rats. Semba, R., Sato, H., Yamamura, H. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Crystal structure of rat biliverdin reductase. Kikuchi, A., Park, S.Y., Miyatake, H., Sun, D., Sato, M., Yoshida, T., Shiro, Y. Nat. Struct. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Racial variability in the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 (UGT1A1) promoter: a balanced polymorphism for regulation of bilirubin metabolism? Beutler, E., Gelbart, T., Demina, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Gilbert syndrome and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: a dose-dependent genetic interaction crucial to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Kaplan, M., Renbaum, P., Levy-Lahad, E., Hammerman, C., Lahad, A., Beutler, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Relationship of benzyl alcohol to kernicterus, intraventricular hemorrhage, and mortality in preterm infants. Jardine, D.S., Rogers, K. Pediatrics (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Unbound bilirubin associated with kernicterus: a historical approach. Ahlfors, C.E. J. Pediatr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Acute hepatitis in Crigler-Najjar syndrome. Sherker, A.H., Heathcote, J. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Albumin reserve for binding of bilirubin in maternal and cord serum under treatment with sulphasalazine. Järnerot, G., Andersen, S., Esbjörner, E., Sandström, B., Brodersen, R. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Sodium valproate controls choreoathetoid movements of kernicterus. Kulkarni, M.L. Indian pediatrics. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Bilirubin induced apoptosis in vitro: insights for kernicterus: commentary on the article by Hankø et al. on page 179. Watchko, J.F. Pediatr. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Displacement of bilirubin from albumin by berberine. Chan, E. Biol. Neonate (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Sulphasalazine and sulphapyridine serum levels in children to mothers treated with sulphasalazine during pregnancy and lactation. Esbjörner, E., Järnerot, G., Wranne, L. Acta paediatrica Scandinavica. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Is kernicterus due to inhibition of brain hexose-monophosphate shunt activity by bilirubin? Thong, Y.H. Med. Hypotheses (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. The effect of bilirubin photoisomers on unbound-bilirubin concentrations estimated by the peroxidase method. Itoh, S., Yamakawa, T., Onishi, S., Isobe, K., Manabe, M., Sasaki, K. Biochem. J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Kernicterus: enzymatic evidence for difference between the development of cholinergic and GABAergic innervations in the brain of the Gunn rat. Ohno, T. J. Neurochem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. The in vivo effect of bilirubin and sulfisoxazole on cerebral oxygen, glucose, and lactate metabolism in newborn piglets. Brann, B.S., Stonestreet, B.S., Oh, W., Cashore, W.J. Pediatr. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Bilirubin beyond the blood-brain barrier. Perlman, M., Frank, J.W. Pediatrics (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. The suitability of saliva for detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Beamont, A.H., Miguel, A., Goos, C.M., Vermeesch-Markslag, A.M., Hermans, A., Vermorken, A.J. Mol. Biol. Rep. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Interaction of coding region mutations and the Gilbert-type promoter abnormality of the UGT1A1 gene causes moderate degrees of unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia and may lead to neonatal kernicterus. Kadakol, A., Sappal, B.S., Ghosh, S.S., Lowenheim, M., Chowdhury, A., Chowdhury, S., Santra, A., Arias, I.M., Chowdhury, J.R., Chowdhury, N.R. J. Med. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and carboxyhemoglobin concentrations associated with bilirubin-related morbidity and death in Nigerian infants. Slusher, T.M., Vreman, H.J., McLaren, D.W., Lewison, L.J., Brown, A.K., Stevenson, D.K. J. Pediatr. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Abnormal eye movements in blepharospasm and involuntary levator palpebrae inhibition. Clinical and pathophysiological considerations. Aramideh, M., Bour, L.J., Koelman, J.H., Speelman, J.D., Ongerboer de Visser, B.W. Brain (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Kernicterus: effect on choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase activities in the brain of the Gunn rat. Ohno, T. Brain Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  29. Delayed development of sensorineural hearing loss after neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: a case report with brain magnetic resonance imaging. Worley, G., Erwin, C.W., Goldstein, R.F., Provenzale, J.M., Ware, R.E. Developmental medicine and child neurology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. The "bronze baby" syndrome: postmortem data. Clark, C.F., Torii, S., Hamamoto, Y., Kaito, H. J. Pediatr. (1976) [Pubmed]
  31. Measurement of plasma unbound unconjugated bilirubin. Ahlfors, C.E. Anal. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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