The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Leukemia Virus, Gibbon Ape

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Leukemia Virus, Gibbon Ape

  • Feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B) and gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) utilize the human protein Pit1 but not the related protein, Pit2, as receptor [1].
  • In contrast, without prestimulation of the target cells, a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based lentiviral vector pseudotyped with gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope (GALV Env) was nearly as inefficient as murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based oncoretroviral vectors in transducing NOD/SCID repopulating cells [2].
  • The glioma cell lines U87, U118, and U251 previously characterized by zymography and MMP-2 activity assay as high, medium, and low MMP expressors, respectively; normal human astrocytes and the MMP-poor cell line TE671 were transfected with the GALV, GALV N40, GALV X40, and GALV M40 constructs [3].
  • METHODS: Replication-defective adenoviruses (Ad) were constructed expressing the hyperfusogenic version of the GALV glycoprotein linked to a blocking ligand (C-terminal extracellular domain of CD40 ligand) through either an MMP-cleavable linker (AdM40) or a non-cleavable linker (AdN40) [4].
  • A recombinant Gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV), containing a gene encoding Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase was next introduced into 24 hr obstructed bile ducts [5].

High impact information on Leukemia Virus, Gibbon Ape

  • The higher gene transfer efficiency with the GALV-pseudotyped vector correlated with higher levels of GALV receptor RNA compared with the amphotropic receptor in CD34(+) hematopoietic cells [6].
  • In addition, the GALV M40 construct retained its cytotoxic activity against U87 cells in vivo, although less effectively as compared to unmodified GALV [3].
  • Expression constructs were made expressing the hyperfusogenic version of the Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus envelope glycoprotein (GALV) linked to a blocking ligand (the C-terminal extracellular domain of CD40 ligand) via either an MMP cleavable linker (GALV M40), a factor Xa protease cleavable linker (GALV X40), or a noncleavable linker (GALV N40) [3].
  • Here we describe heat-directed targeting of an activated form of the Gibbon ape leukemia virus env protein (GALV FMG) to tumor cells [7].
  • A highly polymorphic nine-residue sequence within Pit1, designated region A, has been proposed as the virus binding site, because mutations in this region abolish Pit1-mediated cellular infection by GALV and FeLV-B [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Leukemia Virus, Gibbon Ape

  • Even Pit2 is nonfunctional for GALV only because it has lysine at the first position in its region A, which is otherwise highly diverse from region A of Pit1 [9].
  • This single substitution rendered Pit1 nonfunctional for GALV and suggests that threonine at 550 inactivates ChoPit1 as a GALV receptor [10].
  • METHODS: We generated GALV envelope expression constructs displaying EGF or GM-CSF blocking ligands at the N-terminus of GALV envelope SU via a non-cleavable, Factor Xa protease or MMP-cleavable linker and investigated their cytotoxicity on MMP-positive and negative cell lines [11].

Biological context of Leukemia Virus, Gibbon Ape

  • Strikingly, the amino acid sequence of the fourth extracellular loop, which is critical for GALV surface glycoprotein binding, has complete identity between the human and feline PiT-1s, while the mouse PiT-1, non-functional for GALV entry, is quite divergent [12].

Anatomical context of Leukemia Virus, Gibbon Ape

  • We then analyzed whether this enhanced expression of GLVR-1 correlated with increased infectivity of lymphocytes by retroviral vectors that utilize the GALV envelope compared to those that use the amphotropic envelope [13].
  • We have found that retroviral vectors packaged in ecotropic, amphotropic, and gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) envelope proteins were all inactivated by human sera, and human sera also lysed mouse NIH-3T3 cells and the retroviral vector packaging cells derived from them [14].

Gene context of Leukemia Virus, Gibbon Ape

  • Furthermore, we have constructed Ram-1/Glvr-1 hybrid receptors that allow entry of both GALV and amphotropic virus [15].
  • This suggests that GALV can enter MMMol via not only the GALV receptor (MolPit1) but also the amphotropic murine leukemia virus receptor (MolPit2) [16].
  • We have now determined that the substitution of a single amino acid residue, glutamic acid, for the lysine residue at position 522 in the fourth extracellular region of the PiT2 protein is sufficient to render PiT2 functional as a GALV receptor [17].
  • Earlier studies have shown that a stretch of nine residues (position 550 to 558) in the fourth extracellular domain of Pit1 is crucial for GALV entry and that an acidic residue at position 550 is indispensable [16].
  • Expression of a human-rat chimeric GLVR1 in murine cells demonstrated that rat GLVR1 could function as a receptor for GALV and SSAV but not for FeLV-B [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Leukemia Virus, Gibbon Ape

  • Southern blot hybridization with GALV-derived env and pol-env probes failed to detect any homology between GALV and M813, but did show that all mouse species tested carry numerous copies of GALV-related sequences [19].


  1. A 13-amino-acid Pit1-specific loop 4 sequence confers feline leukemia virus subgroup B receptor function upon Pit2. Dreyer, K., Pedersen, F.S., Pedersen, L. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparison of three retroviral vector systems for transduction of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice repopulating human CD34+ cord blood cells. Leurs, C., Jansen, M., Pollok, K.E., Heinkelein, M., Schmidt, M., Wissler, M., Lindemann, D., Von Kalle, C., Rethwilm, A., Williams, D.A., Hanenberg, H. Hum. Gene Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Targeting the cytotoxicity of fusogenic membrane glycoproteins in gliomas through protease-substrate interaction. Johnson, K.J., Peng, K.W., Allen, C., Russell, S.J., Galanis, E. Gene Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Adenoviral vectors expressing fusogenic membrane glycoproteins activated via matrix metalloproteinase cleavable linkers have significant antitumor potential in the gene therapy of gliomas. Allen, C., McDonald, C., Giannini, C., Peng, K.W., Rosales, G., Russell, S.J., Galanis, E. The journal of gene medicine. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Targeted retroviral gene transfer into the rat biliary tract. Cabrera, J.A., Wilson, J.M., Raper, S.E. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Gene transfer into marrow repopulating cells: comparison between amphotropic and gibbon ape leukemia virus pseudotyped retroviral vectors in a competitive repopulation assay in baboons. Kiem, H.P., Heyward, S., Winkler, A., Potter, J., Allen, J.M., Miller, A.D., Andrews, R.G. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Heat-directed tumor cell fusion. Brade, A.M., Szmitko, P., Ngo, D., Liu, F.F., Klamut, H.J. Hum. Gene Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Reassessing the role of region A in Pit1-mediated viral entry. Farrell, K.B., Russ, J.L., Murthy, R.K., Eiden, M.V. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Mutational analysis of the proposed gibbon ape leukemia virus binding site in Pit1 suggests that other regions are important for infection. Chaudry, G.J., Eiden, M.V. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Gibbon ape leukemia virus receptor functions of type III phosphate transporters from CHOK1 cells are disrupted by two distinct mechanisms. Chaudry, G.J., Farrell, K.B., Ting, Y.T., Schmitz, C., Lie, S.Y., Petropoulos, C.J., Eiden, M.V. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Lack of specificity of cell-surface protease targeting of a cytotoxic hyperfusogenic gibbon ape leukaemia virus envelope glycoprotein. Kirkham, L.A., Bateman, A.R., Melcher, A.A., Vile, R.G., Fielding, A.K. The journal of gene medicine. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Retrovirus receptor PiT-1 of the Felis catus. Rudra-Ganguly, N., Ghosh, A.K., Roy-Burman, P. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Improved gene transfer into human lymphocytes using retroviruses with the gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope. Lam, J.S., Reeves, M.E., Cowherd, R., Rosenberg, S.A., Hwu, P. Hum. Gene Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. The effects of human serum and cerebrospinal fluid on retroviral vectors and packaging cell lines. Russell, D.W., Berger, M.S., Miller, A.D. Hum. Gene Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. A family of retroviruses that utilize related phosphate transporters for cell entry. Miller, D.G., Miller, A.D. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. The Japanese feral mouse Pit1 and Pit2 homologs lack an acidic residue at position 550 but still function as gibbon ape leukemia virus receptors: implications for virus binding motif. Schneiderman, R.D., Farrell, K.B., Wilson, C.A., Eiden, M.V. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Substitution of a single amino acid residue is sufficient to allow the human amphotropic murine leukemia virus receptor to also function as a gibbon ape leukemia virus receptor. Eiden, M.V., Farrell, K.B., Wilson, C.A. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Mutation of amino acids within the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) receptor differentially affects feline leukemia virus subgroup B, simian sarcoma-associated virus, and GALV infections. Tailor, C.S., Takeuchi, Y., O'Hara, B., Johann, S.V., Weiss, R.A., Collins, M.K. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. The mouse homolog of the Gibbon ape leukemia virus receptor: genetic mapping and a possible receptor function in rodents. Adamson, M.C., Silver, J., Kozak, C.A. Virology (1991) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities