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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Freeze Etching

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Disease relevance of Freeze Etching

  • Highly distinctive aspects of the exponentail-phase Rhizobium japonicum cell were disclosed by means of thin sections, freeze etching, fluorescent antibodies, and ruthenium red staining [1].

High impact information on Freeze Etching

  • Freeze-etching revealed, beneath the cellulose ribbons, a linear array of pores on the lipopolysaccharide membrane [2].
  • The freeze-etching appearance of the membranes of the majority of the cells was unaltered by treatment with Hpd and light [3].
  • One of these crystals, with p6 symmetry, clearly represents the native S-layer detected by freeze etching on whole cells, while the other two, showing p2 and p3 symmetries respectively, closely resemble aggregates of bacterial porins [4].
  • The junctional structures present between the midgut cells of 3 lepidopteran caterpillars have been examined using freeze-etching, conventional staining and lanthanum tracer techniques [5].
  • A monoclinic crystal modification of GTP cyclohydrolase I (space group P2(1), a = 204.2 A, b = 210.4 A, c = 71.8 A, alpha = gamma = 90 degrees, beta = 95.8 degrees) was studied by freeze-etching electron microscopy and by Patterson correlation techniques [6].

Biological context of Freeze Etching


Anatomical context of Freeze Etching


Associations of Freeze Etching with chemical compounds

  • After Triton X-100 extraction, the neurofilament-associated interconnecting strands (cross-linking filaments) persisted, indicating that they are not artifactual products of soluble protein condensation during freeze-etching [13].
  • Pellets of infected cells were cryoprotected with glycerol, and processed for freeze-etching [14].
  • Freeze-etching showed that sodium ions had no effect on the membrane fractures observed in control cells, but with EDTA-treated cells, this cation increased the occurrence of small outer membrane fractures (plateaus) which are characteristic of EDTA treatment [15].
  • A possible correlation is suggested between this comb-like structure and the 'acetylcholine receptors' observed by other authors with high resolution electron microscopy either after classical preparative techniques or after freeze-etching, of the postsynaptic membrane of vertebrae cholinergic synapses [16].
  • Successful freeze-etching of a coenocyte has been accomplished with glutaraldehyde stabilization followed by infiltration with cryoprotectant [17].

Gene context of Freeze Etching

  • Immunocytochemical demonstrations of cytoplasmic and cell-surface EGF receptors in A431 cells using cryo-ultramicrotomy, surface replication, freeze-etching and label fracture [18].
  • Freeze-etching analysis showed that the 98-kDa S protein formed a hexagonal arrangement with a 24-nm center-to-center space and that the S proteins with larger MW (127 or 149 kDa) formed tetragonal ones with an 8-nm center-to-center space [19].
  • Interconnections between elastin filaments were revealed by the freeze-etching technique [20].
  • An improved specimen table for the Balzers freeze etching system BAF 400 [21].
  • Unusual amyloid bodies in human liver. Ultrastructural and freeze-etching studies [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Freeze Etching


  1. Polarity in the exponential-phase Rhizobium japonicum cell. Tsien, H.C., Schmidt, E.L. Can. J. Microbiol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Visualization of pores (export sites) correlated with cellulose production in the envelope of the gram-negative bacterium Acetobacter xylinum. Zaar, K. J. Cell Biol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  3. Porphyrin-sensitized photoinactivation of human cells in vitro. Moan, J., Johannessen, J.V., Christensen, T., Espevik, T., McGhie, J.B. Am. J. Pathol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. S-layer protein from Thermus thermophilus HB8 assembles into porin-like structures. Castón, J.R., Berenguer, J., de Pedro, M.A., Carrascosa, J.L. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Junctional structures in the midgut cells of lepidopteran caterpillars. Flower, N.E., Filshie, B.K. J. Cell. Sci. (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Elucidation of crystal packing by X-ray diffraction and freeze-etching electron microscopy. Studies on GTP cyclohydrolase I of Escherichia coli. Meining, W., Bacher, A., Bachmann, L., Schmid, C., Weinkauf, S., Huber, R., Nar, H. J. Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Peroxisomes: identification in freeze-etch preparations of rat kidney. Kalmbach, P., Fahimi, H.D. Cell Biol. Int. Rep. (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. Myelin and glial membrane structures in the optic nerve of normal and jimpy mouse. A freeze-etching study. Omlin, F.X., Bischoff, A., Moor, H. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. Ultrastructure of the intima in WHHL and cholesterol-fed rabbit aortas prepared by ultra-rapid freezing and freeze-etching. Frank, J.S., Fogelman, A.M. J. Lipid Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Ultrastructure of lipids in the optic nerve of the mouse mutant "jimpy". A study of histochemistry, freeze-etching, and thin section technique. Omlin, F.X., Bischoff, A., Spycher, M.A., Wiesmann, U.N. Acta Neuropathol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Freeze-etching observations on the characteristic arrangement of intramembranous particles in the apical plasma membrane of the thyroid follicular cell in TSH-treated mice. Ishimura, K., Okamoto, H., Fujita, H. Cell Tissue Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Size and localization of dystrophin molecule: immunoelectron microscopic and freeze etching studies of muscle plasma membranes of murine skeletal myofibers. Wakayama, Y., Shibuya, S., Jimi, T., Takeda, A., Oniki, H. Acta Neuropathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. The cytoskeleton in myelinated axons: a freeze-etch replica study. Tsukita, S., Usukura, J., Tsukita, S., Ishikawa, H. Neuroscience (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Freeze-etching observations of herpes simplex virus. Hasegawa, T., Hata, S. Archives for dermatological research. Archiv für dermatologische Forschung. (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Physicochemical roles of soluble metal cations in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli K-12. Ferris, F.G., Beveridge, T.J. Can. J. Microbiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Ultracryotomy of nerve-electroplaque synapses for immunocytochemistry. Tsuji, S. J. Neurocytol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. Preparation of coenocytes for freeze-etching. Ellis, E.A., Mullins, J.T. Stain technology. (1975) [Pubmed]
  18. Immunocytochemical demonstrations of cytoplasmic and cell-surface EGF receptors in A431 cells using cryo-ultramicrotomy, surface replication, freeze-etching and label fracture. Boonstra, J., van Belzen, N., van Maurik, P., Hage, W.J., Blok, F.J., Wiegant, F.A., Verkleij, A.J. Journal of microscopy. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Correlation between molecular size of the surface array protein and morphology and antigenicity of the Campylobacter fetus S layer. Fujimoto, S., Takade, A., Amako, K., Blaser, M.J. Infect. Immun. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Contribution of cryotechniques to the study of elastin ultrastructure. Fornieri, C., Ronchetti, I.P., Edman, A.C., Sjöström, M. Journal of microscopy. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. An improved specimen table for the Balzers freeze etching system BAF 400. Wisse, D.M., Spies, F. Journal of microscopy. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Unusual amyloid bodies in human liver. Ultrastructural and freeze-etching studies. Livni, N., Behar, A.J., Lafair, J.S. Isr. J. Med. Sci. (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Comparison between freeze-etching and negative staining. Junger, E., Bachmann, L. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. Cryofixation without cryoprotectants. Freeze substitution and freeze etching of an insect olfactory receptor. Steinbrecht, R.A. Tissue & cell. (1980) [Pubmed]
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