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Chemical Compound Review

cocaine     methyl (1R,2R,3S,5S)-8-methyl-3...

Synonyms: cocainum, Cocaina, Kokain, Neurocaine, Line, ...
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Disease relevance of cocaine

  • As a group, HIV patients showed slowing on fine motor (Grooved Pegboard) and psychomotor function (Trails A & B), and deficits on executive function (Stroop tasks) [1].
  • The accompanying article (Manzi, A., Salimath, P. V., Spiro, R. C., Keifer, P. A., and Freeze, H. H. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 9154-9163) reported the complete structure of a novel molecule made by human melanoma cells incubated with 1 mM 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta Xyl (Xyl beta MU) [2].
  • In addition, men with prostate cancer took more time to complete the Trails A task, indicating slower processing speed, but did not differ significantly from healthy controls in working memory tasks [3].
  • Since we observed CK positivity in retroperitoneal schwannomas, we wanted to study a large group of retroperitoneal and peripheral schwannomas with GFAP, CK and Ks to explore the frequency and biologic background of this finding [4].
  • CONCLUSION: Dust and mite skin test-positive patients with perennial rhinitis had similar early phase responses to intranasal challenge both clinically and with elevations of inflammatory mediators [5].

Psychiatry related information on cocaine

  • Neuropsychological tests included the Trails B Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, memory subtest of the Randt battery, and reaction time [6].
  • The use of such analyses is illustrated with data on childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and time to complete Trails A and B from both a candidate gene study of clinically referred children and a study of non-referred twins [7].
  • Of all neuropsychologic tests performed at enrollment, only enhanced performance on Trails A differentiated the HS from the AD group (64 seconds, 0 errors vs 114 seconds, 0.6 errors; P< or = .05) [8].
  • METHODS: A total of 66 patients underwent EEG, a neuropsychometric screening by Mini-Mental State Examination, Trails Making Tests, Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure, and Hopkins Verbal Learning Tests, and a clinical assessment for HE [9].
  • Outcome variables included plasma phospholipid fatty acid patterns, scores on laboratory measures of inattention and impulsivity (Test of Variables of Attention, Children's Color Trails test) while not taking stimulant medication, and scores on parental behavioral rating scales (Child Behavior Checklist, Conners' Rating Scale) [10].

High impact information on cocaine

  • Thus, antagonism of Bazooka by PAR-1/14-3-3 may represent a general mechanism for establishing complementary cortical domains in polarized cells [11].
  • In epithelia, this complex localizes apically and defines the apical membrane, whereas Bazooka lacking PAR-1 phosphorylation/14-3-3 binding sites forms ectopic lateral complexes [11].
  • Finally, Baz and the Dlg/Pins complex are required for the asymmetric localization of Numb [12].
  • Here we show that localization of Inscuteable depends on Bazooka, a protein containing three PDZ domains with overall sequence similarity to Par-3 of Caenorhabditis elegans [13].
  • Here we show that the apical localizaton of Inscuteable requires Bazooka, a protein containing a PDZ domain that is essential for apical-basal polarity in epithelial cells [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of cocaine


Biological context of cocaine


Anatomical context of cocaine

  • PAR-1 also excludes Bazooka from the posterior of the oocyte, and disruption of this regulation causes anterior-posterior polarity defects [11].
  • Bazooka, a Par-3 homolog, is properly localized in the absence of adherens junctions, indicating that the formation of epithelial junctions is not the founding event of epithelial polarization [19].
  • AuTf, like transferrin, was released with subsequent incubation at 37 degrees C. Freeze-dried and freeze-fractured reticulocytes confirmed the distribution of AuTf in reticulocytes and revealed the presence of clathrin-coated patches amidst the spectrin coating the inner surface of the plasma membrane [20].
  • Surprisingly, we found that Baz localizes to an apical domain below its typical binding partners atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and partitioning defective (PAR)-6 as the Drosophila epithelium first forms [21].
  • This area contains a structure (Andrews, L. D., 1982, Freeze-fracture studies of vertebrate photoreceptors, In Structure of the Eye, J. G. Hollyfield and E. Acosta Vidrio, editors, Elsevier/North-Holland, New York, 11-23) that resembles the active zones of the nerve terminals for the frog neuromuscular junction [22].

Associations of cocaine with other chemical compounds

  • armadillo, bazooka, and stardust are critical for early stages in formation of the zonula adherens and maintenance of the polarized blastoderm epithelium in Drosophila [23].
  • BACKGROUND: Dust mite allergen exposure is considered a major determinant of sensitization to these allergens during childhood and a risk factor for pediatric asthma [24].
  • Our results suggest that the stimulant effects of AMPH and chemically related compounds, but not COC, require the presence of functionally active Kv1.1 channels in the brain [25].
  • STUDY DESIGN: To evaluate mortality rates, pregnant Long-Evans rats received subcutaneously 30, 40, or 50 mg/kg cocaine hydrochloride twice daily (C30, C40, and C50 groups) either during gestational days 7 to 13 (midgestation) or gestational days 14 to 20 (late gestation) (n 9 to 20 per group) [26].
  • Animals were dosed with PCP (15 mg/kg, ip) its congener (+) MK-801 (0.15 mg/kp, ip), METH (2 mg/kg, ip) COC (60 mg/kp, ip), or apomorphine (0.2 mg/kg, ip) [27].

Gene context of cocaine

  • AJ assembly is closely coupled to Baz positioning, whereas aPKC and PAR-6 are positioned separately [21].
  • Mutant analyses revealed that apical Baz accumulations can be established in the absence of AJs, whereas assembly of apical DE-Cad complexes requires Baz [28].
  • Expression of AQP4 in transfected cells increased the osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf) from 2.02 +/- 0.3 x 10-4 to 16.37 +/- 0.5 x 10-4 cm/s at 20 degrees C. Freeze-fracture EM showed distinct orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs), the morphological signature of AQP4, on the plasma membrane of AQP4-expressing cells [29].
  • Here, we show that the development of these cellular structures involves two distinct processes: the establishment of apical-basal polarity that requires Bazooka (Baz), and the regionalization of apical membrane into stalk membranes and rhabdomeres that requires Stardust (Sdt) [30].
  • Distinct roles of Bazooka and Stardust in the specification of Drosophila photoreceptor membrane architecture [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of cocaine

  • However, the pattern of relatively stable POMS scores and poorer Trails B performance post-RT suggested that this combination of chemotherapy and RT had a negative impact on cognitive functioning [31].
  • HD patients showed a smaller blood flow velocity increase in the anterior cerebral arteries during the Porteus Maze Test (p < 0.001) and the Trails Test, Part B (p < 0.001) [32].
  • Frequency of indeterminate western blot tests in healthy adults at low risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The NIAID AIDS Vaccine Clinical Trails Network [33].
  • Additional results suggested that Trails B was especially effective at discriminating index siblings from controls, thus supporting its potential utility as a candidate quantitative phenotype to aid in gene mapping studies of the disorder [34].
  • METHODS: Dust was collected from bedding and floors of 76 homes and four public buildings in Tokelau and from the homes of 30 Tokelauan families in Wellington, New Zealand. Dust samples were analysed for Der p 1, Der f 1, Can f 1, Fel d 1, Bla g 2 and Blo t 5 by ELISA, and for endotoxin by a kinetic amoebocyte lysate assay [35].


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