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MeSH Review

Bile Reflux

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Disease relevance of Bile Reflux


High impact information on Bile Reflux


Chemical compound and disease context of Bile Reflux

  • These results suggest that increasing the proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid in refluxed gastric bile reduces the pain and frequency of symptoms associated with bile reflux [1].
  • 3 In antisecretory doses, the analogues, like prostaglandin E2, caused bile reflux and, in higher doses, profuse diarrhoea [11].
  • It is suggested that bile reflux into the stomach may play a part in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in rats [12].
  • The gastric lumen was then rapidly alkalinized; this phenomenon was due to a simultaneous decrease in acid secretion and a short-lasting (15 +/- 2 min, mean +/- SE) phasic increase in bicarbonate output, which was not associated with bile reflux (bilirubin) [13].
  • There was a positive correlation between fasting bile reflux and putrescine levels either in antrum (r = 0.37, P = 0.04) or body (r = 0.48, P = 0.006) [3].

Biological context of Bile Reflux


Gene context of Bile Reflux

  • CONCLUSIONS: Both H.pylori infection and bile reflux increased IL-8 levels after BI anastomosis [16].
  • In the PC group the restraint haltering of the animals promoted presumably a stress situation with bile reflux in the non-operated whereas in the operated animals (PC2) reflux did not occur [17].
  • CONCLUSION: Acid and/or bile reflux can be present after a wide variety of gastric operations [18].
  • This may reflect the role of bile reflux, which is more common in BII than BI, because bile reflux interferes with colonization by H. pylori [19].
  • Proton pump inhibitors not only suppress acid but also bile reflux, although symptom control is a poor guide as to adequacy of acid suppression [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Bile Reflux

  • Erosive mucosal lesions associated with the ingestion of ulcerogenic drugs or alcohol, or bile reflux, were the major causes of bleeding found in a group of aged patients on endoscopy for upper gastro-intestinal bleeding [21].
  • Local chronic ischemia and inflammatory reaction as a consequence of gastric surgery and suture at gastroenterostomy together with bile reflux were considered responsible for the development of GCP [22].


  1. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment of bile reflux gastritis. Stefaniwsky, A.B., Tint, G.S., Speck, J., Shefer, S., Salen, G. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Barrett's esophagus: detection and management. Katzka, D.A. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Duodenogastric reflux and gastric mucosal cell proliferation after cholecystectomy or Billroth II gastric resection. Lorusso, D., Pezzolla, F., Linsalata, M., Berloco, P., Notarnicola, M., Guerra, V., Di Leo, A. Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. The effect of the CCK receptor antagonist CR 1409 on bile reflux pancreatitis in the opossum. Larsen, F., Schlarman, D., Andrus, C.C., Kaminski, D.L. Pancreas (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Elevated cyclooxygenase-2 expression in patients with early gastric cancer in the gastric pylorus. Yasuda, H., Yamada, M., Endo, Y., Inoue, K., Yoshiba, M. J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Disturbed intestinal movement, bile reflux to the stomach, and deficiency of c-kit-expressing cells in Ws/Ws mutant rats. Isozaki, K., Hirota, S., Nakama, A., Miyagawa, J., Shinomura, Y., Xu, Z., Nomura, S., Kitamura, Y. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of omeprazole 20 mg twice daily on duodenogastric and gastro-oesophageal bile reflux in Barrett's oesophagus. Marshall, R.E., Anggiansah, A., Manifold, D.K., Owen, W.A., Owen, W.J. Gut (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Scintigraphic cholecystokinin-induced bile reflux named as Krishnamurthy-Bobba sign. Brar, H.S. J. Nucl. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Gastric nitrite processing in the surgically altered maximal and minimal bile reflux ferret model. Ryden, E.B., Licht, W.R., Cabot, E.B., Fox, J.G. Carcinogenesis (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Influence of pantoprazole on oesophageal motility, and bile and acid reflux in patients with oesophagitis. Netzer, P., Gut, A., Brundler, R., Gaia, C., Halter, F., Inauen, W. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Potency and selectivity of methyl analogues of prostaglandin E2 on rat gastrointestinal function. Main, I.H., Whittle, B.J. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. Decreased incidence of indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in rats by bile duct diversion. Abtahi, F.S., Djahanguiri, B. The British journal of surgery. (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Motility-related cyclic fluctuations of interdigestive gastric acid and bicarbonate secretion in man. A source of substantial variability in gastric secretion studies. Dalenbäck, J., Mellander, A., Olbe, L., Sjövall, H. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Bile reflux into the stomach and the esophagus for volunteers older than 40 years. Bollschweiler, E., Wolfgarten, E., Pütz, B., Gutschow, C., Hölscher, A.H. Digestion (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Gastric emptying and duodeno-gastro-oesophageal reflux in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Freedman, J., Grybäck, P., Lindqvist, M., Granström, L., Lagergren, J., Hellström, P.M., Jacobsson, H., Näslund, E. Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Interleukin-8, cyclo-oxygenase-2, and trefoil factor family 1 gene expression and their association with Helicobacter pylori infection in the remnant stomach. Xing, C., Kato, S., Matsukura, N., Matsuda, N., Xu, H., Takashi, E., Yamada, N., Naito, Z., Tajiri, T. Surgery today. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Diversion of bile and pancreatic secretion in the rat and its effect on cysteamine-induced duodenal and peptic ulcer development under maximal acid secretion. Clémençon, G.H., Fehr, H.F., Finger, J. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Investigation of oesophageal reflux symptoms after gastric surgery with combined pH and bilirubin monitoring. Marshall, R.E., Anggiansah, A., Owen, W.A., Owen, W.J. The British journal of surgery. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Helicobacter pylori infection in the remnant stomach after gastrectomy: with special reference to the difference between Billroth I and II anastomoses. Tomtitchong, P., Onda, M., Matsukura, N., Tokunaga, A., Kato, S., Matsuhisa, T., Yamada, N., Hayashi, A. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Acid suppression and chemoprevention in Barrett's oesophagus. Raj, A., Jankowski, J. Digestive diseases (Basel, Switzerland) (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Haematemesis and melaena in the elderly. Booker, J.A. Age and ageing. (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Gastritis cystica polyposa: a possible precancerous lesion. Franzin, G., Musola, R., Zamboni, G., Manfrini, C. Tumori. (1985) [Pubmed]
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