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Chemical Compound Review

Astropan     6-(difluoromethoxy)-2-[(3,4...

Synonyms: Pantoloc, Pantopan, Pantozol, Protonix, Protium, ...
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Disease relevance of pantoprazole


Psychiatry related information on pantoprazole


High impact information on pantoprazole

  • In humans, the half-life of the inhibitory effect on acid secretion is approximately 28 hours for omeprazole and approximately 46 hours for pantoprazole [8].
  • Pantoprazole was actively transported by Bcrp1 but not by MRP2 [9].
  • Some compounds that stimulate E217betaG transport, such as penicillin G or pantoprazole, are not detectably transported by MRP2, suggesting that they allosterically stimulate transport without being cotransported with E217betaG [10].
  • On the basis of the fact that blocking the clearance of acidic metabolites are known to induce the cell death, we hypothesized that pantoprazole (PPZ), one of gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase inhibitors used frequently to treat acid-related diseases, could inhibit growth of tumor cells [11].
  • To determine the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 in the stereoselective metabolism of pantoprazole, we investigated the pharmacokinetic disposition of (+)- and (-)-pantoprazole in 7 extensive metabolizers and 7 poor metabolizers of S-mephenytoin [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of pantoprazole


Biological context of pantoprazole


Anatomical context of pantoprazole


Associations of pantoprazole with other chemical compounds


Gene context of pantoprazole


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pantoprazole

  • Four patients required upward dose titration, 2 required 120 mg pantoprazole every 12 hours, and 2 required 80 mg every 8 hours [2].
  • In conclusion, subjects receiving pantoprazole after elective EVL had significantly smaller postbanding ulcers on follow-up endoscopy than subjects receiving placebo [32].
  • Pantoprazole reduces the size of postbanding ulcers after variceal band ligation: a randomized, controlled trial [32].
  • Pantoprazole appears to be well tolerated during short term oral administration, with diarrhoea (1.5%), headache (1.3%), dizziness (0.7%), pruritus (0.5%) and skin rash (0.4%) representing the most frequent adverse events [13].
  • A direct stereoselective reversed-phase HPLC method is described for the determination of the enantiomers of a proton pump inhibitor, pantoprazole (PAN), in human serum [33].


  1. Gastric Helicobacter pylori infection accelerates healing of reflux esophagitis during treatment with the proton pump inhibitor pantoprazole. Holtmann, G., Cain, C., Malfertheiner, P. Gastroenterology (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Intravenous pantoprazole rapidly controls gastric acid hypersecretion in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Lew, E.A., Pisegna, J.R., Starr, J.A., Soffer, E.F., Forsmark, C., Modlin, I.M., Walsh, J.H., Beg, M., Bochenek, W., Metz, D.C. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Recurrent anaphylaxis linked to pantoprazole. Kollmeier, A.P., Eddleston, J., Zuraw, B.L., Christiansen, S.C. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Lansoprazole: an update of its place in the management of acid-related disorders. Matheson, A.J., Jarvis, B. Drugs (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Increased clozapine plasma concentrations and side effects induced by smoking cessation in 2 CYP1A2 genotyped patients. Bondolfi, G., Morel, F., Crettol, S., Rachid, F., Baumann, P., Eap, C.B. Therapeutic drug monitoring. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Multi-criteria decision making approach and experimental design as chemometric tools to optimize HPLC separation of domperidone and pantoprazole. Sivakumar, T., Manavalan, R., Muralidharan, C., Valliappan, K. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Pantoprazole-based dual and triple therapy for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection: a randomized controlled trial. Svoboda, P., Kantorová, I., Ochmann, J., Doubek, J., Kozumplík, L., Marsová, J. Hepatogastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Restoration of acid secretion following treatment with proton pump inhibitors. Shin, J.M., Sachs, G. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Mechanism of the pharmacokinetic interaction between methotrexate and benzimidazoles: potential role for breast cancer resistance protein in clinical drug-drug interactions. Breedveld, P., Zelcer, N., Pluim, D., Sönmezer, O., Tibben, M.M., Beijnen, J.H., Schinkel, A.H., van Tellingen, O., Borst, P., Schellens, J.H. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Evidence for two interacting ligand binding sites in human multidrug resistance protein 2 (ATP binding cassette C2). Zelcer, N., Huisman, M.T., Reid, G., Wielinga, P., Breedveld, P., Kuil, A., Knipscheer, P., Schellens, J.H., Schinkel, A.H., Borst, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Selective induction of apoptosis with proton pump inhibitor in gastric cancer cells. Yeo, M., Kim, D.K., Kim, Y.B., Oh, T.Y., Lee, J.E., Cho, S.W., Kim, H.C., Hahm, K.B. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Stereoselective pharmacokinetics of pantoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, in extensive and poor metabolizers of S-mephenytoin. Tanaka, M., Ohkubo, T., Otani, K., Suzuki, A., Kaneko, S., Sugawara, K., Ryokawa, Y., Ishizaki, T. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Pantoprazole. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use in acid-related disorders. Fitton, A., Wiseman, L. Drugs (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Pharmacodynamic effects of single doses of rabeprazole 20 mg and pantoprazole 40 mg in patients with GERD and nocturnal heartburn. Warrington, S., Baisley, K., Lee, D., Lomax, K., Delemos, B., Boyce, M., Morocutti, A. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Efficacy and tolerability of a one-week triple therapy consisting of pantoprazole, clarithromycin and amoxycillin for cure of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with duodenal ulcer. Labenz, J., Tillenburg, B., Weismüller, J., Lütke, A., Stolte, M. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Pantoprazole provides rapid and sustained symptomatic relief in patients treated for erosive oesophagitis. Bochenek, W.J., Mack, M.E., Fraga, P.D., Metz, D.C. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Metabolic disposition of pantoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, in relation to S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation phenotype and genotype. Tanaka, M., Ohkubo, T., Otani, K., Suzuki, A., Kaneko, S., Sugawara, K., Ryokawa, Y., Hakusui, H., Yamamori, S., Ishizaki, T. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Pantoprazole: an update of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use in the management of acid-related disorders. Cheer, S.M., Prakash, A., Faulds, D., Lamb, H.M. Drugs (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of oral pantoprazole on 24-hour intragastric acidity and plasma gastrin profiles. Hannan, A., Weil, J., Broom, C., Walt, R.P. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. By 1023/SK&F 96022: biochemistry of a novel (H+ + K+)-ATPase inhibitor. Simon, W.A., Keeling, D.J., Laing, S.M., Fallowfield, C., Taylor, A.G. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. New hepatocyte in vitro systems for drug metabolism: metabolic capacity and recommendations for application in basic research and drug development, standard operation procedures. Gebhardt, R., Hengstler, J.G., Müller, D., Glöckner, R., Buenning, P., Laube, B., Schmelzer, E., Ullrich, M., Utesch, D., Hewitt, N., Ringel, M., Hilz, B.R., Bader, A., Langsch, A., Koose, T., Burger, H.J., Maas, J., Oesch, F. Drug Metab. Rev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of pantoprazole on 24-h intragastric pH and serum gastrin in humans. Londong, W. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Long-term therapy with pantoprazole in patients with peptic ulceration resistant to extended high-dose ranitidine treatment. Brunner, G., Harke, U. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and interactions of acid pump inhibitors. Focus on omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole. Andersson, T. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Pharmacokinetics of proton pump inhibitors in children. Litalien, C., Théorêt, Y., Faure, C. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Continuous Infusion of Pantoprazole versus Ranitidine for Prevention of Ulcer Rebleeding: A U.S. Multicenter Randomized, Double-Blind Study. Jensen, D.M., Pace, S.C., Soffer, E., Comer, G.M. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Symptom relief in gastroesophageal reflux disease: a randomized, controlled comparison of pantoprazole and nizatidine in a mixed patient population with erosive esophagitis or endoscopy-negative reflux disease. Armstrong, D., Paré, P., Pericak, D., Pyzyk, M. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Inhibition of pentagastrin-induced gastric acid secretion by intravenous pantoprazole: a dose-response study. Pisegna, J.R., Martin, P., McKeand, W., Ohning, G., Walsh, J.H., Paul, J. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Metabolic interactions of the proton-pump inhibitors lansoprazole, omeprazole and pantoprazole with other drugs. Meyer, U.A. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Lack of pharmacokinetic interaction between pantoprazole and diclofenac. Bliesath, H., Huber, R., Steinijans, V.W., Koch, H.J., Wurst, W., Mascher, H. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of benzimidazole derivatives on cytochrome P450 1A1 expression in a human hepatoma cell line. Krusekopf, S., Kleeberg, U., Hildebrandt, A.G., Ruckpaul, K. Xenobiotica (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Pantoprazole reduces the size of postbanding ulcers after variceal band ligation: a randomized, controlled trial. Shaheen, N.J., Stuart, E., Schmitz, S.M., Mitchell, K.L., Fried, M.W., Zacks, S., Russo, M.W., Galanko, J., Shrestha, R. Hepatology (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Direct determination of pantoprazole enantiomers in human serum by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a cellulose-based chiral stationary phase and column-switching system as a sample cleanup procedure. Tanaka, M., Yamazaki, H. Anal. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
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