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Gene Review

GER  -  Gastroesophageal reflux

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of GER


Psychiatry related information on GER


High impact information on GER


Chemical compound and disease context of GER


Biological context of GER

  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that a gene for severe pediatric GER maps to chromosome 13q14 [2].
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify a genetic locus that cosegregates with a severe pediatric GER phenotype in families with multiple affected members [2].
  • DESIGN: A genome-wide scan of families affected by severe pediatric GER using polymorphic microsatellite markers spaced at an average of 8 centimorgans (cM), followed by haplotyping and by pairwise and multipoint linkage analyses [2].
  • RESULTS: In these families, severe pediatric GER followed an autosomal dominant hereditary pattern with high penetrance [2].
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Determination of inheritance patterns and linkage of a genetic locus with the severe pediatric GER phenotype by logarithm-of-odds (lod) score analysis, considering a lod score of 3 or greater as evidence of linkage [2].

Anatomical context of GER

  • Data on gastroesophageal reflux (GER), adherence to the gastrostomy feeding program, and sputum culture were also assessed [19].
  • We conclude that in asymptomatic recumbent subjects GER is related to transient inappropriate LES relaxations rather than to low steady-state basal LES pressure and also, that primary perstalsis is the major mechanism that clears the esophagus of refluxed material [5].
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between esophageal body and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) motor events and the occurrence of GER [20].
  • Biochemical evidence will be presented that the B cell line derived from the individual GER expresses five distinct types of DR molecules [21].
  • Attempting to tie together the pieces of the puzzle, numerous investigators have struggled to show that in patients with asthma, GER symptoms occur too frequently, gastric acid dwells for too long in the esophageal lumen, and refluxed gastric acid injures the esophageal mucosa more than expected [22].

Associations of GER with chemical compounds

  • These significantly improved during cisapride, suggesting that GER can trigger many complications in CF [23].
  • Identification in collagen type I of an integrin alpha2 beta1-binding site containing an essential GER sequence [24].
  • Further, based on the reported number of reflux episodes occurring during 24-hour pH monitoring, airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine challenge tends to increase as GER worsens [25].
  • Thus, our study failed to demonstrate any adverse effect of a slow-release theophylline preparation on GER in patients with asthma [26].
  • Physiologic recordings of sleep (electroencephalogram, 'ear-o-gram', behavioral observations), cardiorespiratory function (end-tidal CO2, O2 saturation, heart rate, respiratory movements), swallowing (pharyngeal or esophageal pressures) and GER (signaled by a fall in esophageal pH) were displayed and stored on a computer [27].

Regulatory relationships of GER


Other interactions of GER

  • While no casanova orthologs have been identified in tetrapods, the F-type SOX, SOX7, is supplied maternally in Xenopus (Fawcett and Klymkowsky, 2004. GER 4, 29) [33].
  • GER alone presents a neutrophilic pattern of inflammation when determined by elevated concentrations of IL-6 in sputum cell analysis [34].
  • MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: GER-related asthma is characterized by an eosinophilic inflammation, as determined by elevated concentrations of IL-4 in breath condensate and sputum supernatant, and by sputum cell analysis [34].
  • The identification of a novel NCA-related pancreatic tumour-associated antigen, DD9-antigen: a comparison with the expression of other tumour antigens by the pancreatic tumour cell line GER [35].
  • These results demonstrate that GER+IMT and GER alone are equally effective in improving exercise performance in patients with COPD [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GER

  • The early diagnosis of GER in these infants may have led to a delay in diagnosis and treatment of CF [3].
  • Patients with clinical evidence of GER (n = 11) had significantly lower weight gain after gastrostomy (delta WAZ, -0.32 +/- 0.26 vs. 0.03 +/- 0.39; P = 0.03) [19].
  • Gastroesophageal reflux (symptomatic and silent): a potentially significant problem in patients with cystic fibrosis before and after lung transplantation [37].
  • METHODS: Concurrent esophageal manometry and pH monitoring was conducted for 4 hours postprandially in 37 children referred for evaluation of suspected pathological GER [20].
  • Sequence alignment was used to investigate the occurrence of related motifs in other human fibrillar collagens, and located a conserved array of novel GER motifs within their triple helical domains [38].


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  2. Mapping of a gene for severe pediatric gastroesophageal reflux to chromosome 13q14. Hu, F.Z., Preston, R.A., Post, J.C., White, G.J., Kikuchi, L.W., Wang, X., Leal, S.M., Levenstien, M.A., Ott, J., Self, T.W., Allen, G., Stiffler, R.S., McGraw, C., Pulsifer-Anderson, E.A., Ehrlich, G.D. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Cystic fibrosis and gastroesophageal reflux in infancy. Thomas, D., Rothberg, R.M., Lester, L.A. Am. J. Dis. Child. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Clinical analysis of gastroesophageal reflux after PEG. Nishiwaki, S., Araki, H., Goto, N., Niwa, Y., Kubota, M., Iwashita, M., Onogi, N., Hatakeyama, H., Hayashi, T., Maeda, T., Saitoh, K. Gastrointest. Endosc. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Mechanism of gastroesophageal reflux in recumbent asymptomatic human subjects. Dent, J., Dodds, W.J., Friedman, R.H., Sekiguchi, T., Hogan, W.J., Arndorfer, R.C., Petrie, D.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Lifestyle factors and risk for symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux in monozygotic twins. Zheng, Z., Nordenstedt, H., Pedersen, N.L., Lagergren, J., Ye, W. Gastroenterology (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Barrett's esophagus in children. Diagnosis and management. Othersen, H.B., Ocampo, R.J., Parker, E.F., Smith, C.D., Tagge, E.P. Ann. Surg. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. The influence of rapid food intake on postprandial reflux: studies in healthy volunteers. Wildi, S.M., Tutuian, R., Castell, D.O. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux on induction of anaesthesia does not correlate with the volume of gastric contents. Hardy, J.F., Lepage, Y., Bonneville-Chouinard, N. Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthésie. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Chronic inflammation: a common and important factor in the pathogenesis of neoplasia. Schottenfeld, D., Beebe-Dimmer, J. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Gastroesophageal reflux and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Nandurkar, S., Talley, N.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux as a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Lagergren, J., Bergström, R., Lindgren, A., Nyrén, O. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. The infant seat as treatment for gastroesophageal reflux. Orenstein, S.R., Whitington, P.F., Orenstein, D.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with reflux esophagitis. Dodds, W.J., Dent, J., Hogan, W.J., Helm, J.F., Hauser, R., Patel, G.K., Egide, M.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Increase in gastroesophageal reflux during methacholine-induced bronchospasm. Moote, D.W., Lloyd, D.A., McCourtie, D.R., Wells, G.A. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. All-trans retinoic acid in hematological malignancies, an update. GER (Gruppo Ematologico Retinoidi). Sacchi, S., Russo, D., Avvisati, G., Dastoli, G., Lazzarino, M., Pelicci, P.G., Bonora, M.R., Visani, G., Grassi, C., Iacona, I., Luzzi, L., Vanzanelli, P. Haematologica (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Influence of xanthines on gastroesophageal reflux in infants at risk for sudden infant death syndrome. Vandenplas, Y., De Wolf, D., Sacre, L. Pediatrics (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Caballero-Plasencia, A.M., Valenzuela-Barranco, M., Herrerías-Gutiérrez, J.M., Esteban-Carretero, J.M. European journal of nuclear medicine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Factors affecting clinical outcome in gastrostomy-fed children with cystic fibrosis. Oliver, M.R., Heine, R.G., Ng, C.H., Volders, E., Olinsky, A. Pediatr. Pulmonol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Mechanisms responsible for gastroesophageal reflux in children. Kawahara, H., Dent, J., Davidson, G. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Molecular, serologic, and functional evidence for an apparent HLA-DR triplet. Bontrop, R.E., Schreuder, G.M., Elferink, D.G., Mikulski, M.M., Geerse, R., Giphart, M.J. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Why do the published data fail to clarify the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux and asthma? Sontag, S.J. Am. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Gastroesophageal reflux: a primary defect in cystic fibrosis? Dab, I., Malfroot, A. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification in collagen type I of an integrin alpha2 beta1-binding site containing an essential GER sequence. Knight, C.G., Morton, L.F., Onley, D.J., Peachey, A.R., Messent, A.J., Smethurst, P.A., Tuckwell, D.S., Farndale, R.W., Barnes, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Possible mechanisms of influence of esophageal acid on airway hyperresponsiveness. Stein, M.R. Am. J. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of theophylline on gastroesophageal reflux in patients with asthma. Hubert, D., Gaudric, M., Guerre, J., Lockhart, A., Marsac, J. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. A method for simultaneous physiological and radiographic recordings from sleeping neonatal piglets. Post, E.J., Wood, A.K., Page, M., Jeffery, H.E. Sleep. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Control of gastric acid with high dose H2-receptor antagonists after omeprazole failure: report of two cases. Leite, L.P., Just, R.J., Castell, D.O., Lagerström, P.O. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Endogenous cholecystokinin enhances postprandial gastroesophageal reflux in humans through extrasphincteric receptors. Clavé, P., González, A., Moreno, A., López, R., Farré, A., Cussó, X., D'Amato, M., Azpiroz, F., Lluís, F. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Increased acid exposure in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease influences cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in the squamous epithelium of the lower esophagus. Hamoui, N., Peters, J.H., Schneider, S., Uchida, K., Yang, D., Vallböhmer, D., Valboehmer, D., Hagen, J.A., DeMeester, S.R., DeMeester, T.R., Danenberg, K., Danenberg, P. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Intractable dysphagia following placement of Angelchik prosthesis for reflux esophagitis. Battaglini, J.W., Schorlemmer, G.R., Frantz, P.T. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (1983) [Pubmed]
  32. Gastroesophageal reflux and pulmonary aspiration: incidence, functional abnormality, and results of surgical therapy. Pellegrini, C.A., DeMeester, T.R., Johnson, L.F., Skinner, D.B. Surgery (1979) [Pubmed]
  33. SOX7 is an immediate-early target of VegT and regulates Nodal-related gene expression in Xenopus. Zhang, C., Basta, T., Fawcett, S.R., Klymkowsky, M.W. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Airway inflammation in subjects with gastro-oesophageal reflux and gastro-oesophageal reflux-related asthma. Carpagnano, G.E., Resta, O., Ventura, M.T., Amoruso, A.C., Di Gioia, G., Giliberti, T., Refolo, L., Foschino-Barbaro, M.P. J. Intern. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. The identification of a novel NCA-related pancreatic tumour-associated antigen, DD9-antigen: a comparison with the expression of other tumour antigens by the pancreatic tumour cell line GER. Grant, A.G., Grant, D.A. Pancreas (1991) [Pubmed]
  36. Inspiratory muscle training and whole-body reconditioning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Berry, M.J., Adair, N.E., Sevensky, K.S., Quinby, A., Lever, H.M. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Gastroesophageal reflux (symptomatic and silent): a potentially significant problem in patients with cystic fibrosis before and after lung transplantation. Button, B.M., Roberts, S., Kotsimbos, T.C., Levvey, B.J., Williams, T.J., Bailey, M., Snell, G.I., Wilson, J.W. J. Heart Lung Transplant. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Integrin activation state determines selectivity for novel recognition sites in fibrillar collagens. Siljander, P.R., Hamaia, S., Peachey, A.R., Slatter, D.A., Smethurst, P.A., Ouwehand, W.H., Knight, C.G., Farndale, R.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
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