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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Calamus


High impact information on Calamus

  • Phenylephrine-sensitive GABAergic neurons that were retrogradely labeled after tracer deposits in pressor sites of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) occupied a zone extending approximately 1.4 mm rostrally from the level of the calamus scriptorius, intermingled partly with catecholaminergic neurons of the A1 and C1 cell groups [3].
  • The VRG organization was mapped systematically using injections of the excitatory amino acid DL-homocysteic acid (DLH; 5-20 mM, 2-6 nl) from single- or double-barrel pipettes at 100-200 microm intervals between the facial nucleus and the calamus scriptorius [4].
  • A combination of a modified Feret' (Silvae Genet. 1971, 20, 46-50) extraction buffer and two types of electrophoresis with acrylamide and starch gels were used to characterize allozymes in mature vegetative tissue of a commercially high value species of rattans (Calamus subinermis) [5].
  • The stereotaxic coordinates for mNTS were: 0.5-0.6 mm rostral to the calamus scriptorius, 0.5-0.6 mm lateral to the midline, and 0.5-0.6 mm deep from the dorsal medullary surface [6].
  • The changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and respiratory frequency (RF) in response to microinjection of NMDA or AMPA into the commissural subnucleus of the NTS (comNTS) at the calamus scriptorius level of awake rats were evaluated [7].

Biological context of Calamus


Anatomical context of Calamus


Associations of Calamus with chemical compounds

  • Injections of glutamate into this spot, 1.0 mm caudal to the calamus scriptorius, 2.0 mm lateral to the midline, and 1.7 mm ventral from the dorsal surface of the medulla, induced significant increases in arterial pressure [11].
  • The volatile oil of myrrh was obtained at 9.0 MPa and 50 degrees C and at a CO2 flow of 1.5 kg/h. Acorus calamus was extracted at 9.0 MPa and 45 degrees C and at a CO2 flow of 1.6 kg/h. In both cases, an oil devoid of cuticular waxes was obtained with a single depressurization stage [12].
  • The main components of the SFE oil of A. calamus (Y = 3.5%) were acorenone, 13.4%; iso-acorone, 11.6%; (Z)-sesquilavandulol, 11.0%; dehydroxy isocalamendiol, 7.7%; and beta-asarone, 5.5% [12].
  • Alcoholic extracts of the triploid A. calamus were characterized by a higher percentage of beta-asarone (11%), which was the main compound, followed by higher percentages of camphene (2.27%), E-beta-ocimene (3.28%), camphor (1.54%), calarene (1.42%), alpha-selinene (5.02%) and tau-cadinol (2.00%), when compared to the diploid A. calamus [8].
  • An ethanol extract of Acorus calamus rhizomes was screened for CNS effects using a battery of 20 tests in rats and mice [10].

Gene context of Calamus

  • Soluble proteins from fowl feather keratin. III. Isolation and characteristics of some calamus proteins [13].
  • This small beta-keratin is probably suitable for the formation of long, axial filaments in elongated barb, barbule and calamus cells [14].
  • In order to verify our algorithm, we tried to identify the compounds separated by GC-MSD from different species of Acorus calamus L [15].
  • For these purposes alcoholic extracts of both diploid and triploid A. calamus were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and comparison of the 700 bp sequence of the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) in the 5S-rRNA gene was also performed [8].
  • High antioxidant activity was obtained from the extracts of three fruits, Gaultheria shallon, Sambucus cerulea and Prunus americana and one extracted rhizome, Acorus calamus [16].


  1. Mutagenicity testing of beta-asarone and commercial calamus drugs with Salmonella typhimurium. Göggelmann, W., Schimmer, O. Mutat. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Delayed increase of tyrosine hydroxylation in the rat A2 medullary neurons upon long-term hypoxia. Soulier, V., Dalmaz, Y., Cottet-Emard, J.M., Kitahama, K., Pequignot, J.M. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Organization and transmitter specificity of medullary neurons activated by sustained hypertension: implications for understanding baroreceptor reflex circuitry. Chan, R.K., Sawchenko, P.E. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Defining ventral medullary respiratory compartments with a glutamate receptor agonist in the rat. Monnier, A., Alheid, G.F., McCrimmon, D.R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Isozymes of a rattan species and their genetic interpretation. Bon, M.C. Electrophoresis (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Carotid baroreflex in the rat: role of glutamate receptors in the medial subnucleus of the solitary tract. Viard, E., Sapru, H.N. Neuroscience (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Respiratory and autonomic responses to microinjection of NMDA and AMPA into the commissural subnucleus of the NTS of awake rats. Almado, C.E., Machado, B.H. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of an EcoRI restriction site for a rapid and precise determination of beta-asarone-free Acorus calamus cytotypes. Bertea, C.M., Azzolin, C.M., Bossi, S., Doglia, G., Maffei, M.E. Phytochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Excitatory amino acid receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarius mediate the responses to the stimulation of cardio-pulmonary vagal afferent C fiber endings. Vardhan, A., Kachroo, A., Sapru, H.N. Brain Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Central nervous system studies on an ethanol extract of Acorus calamus rhizomes. Vohora, S.B., Shah, S.A., Dandiya, P.C. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. The caudal pressor area of the rat: its precise location and projections to the ventrolateral medulla. Sun, W., Panneton, W.M. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Chemical composition of the essential oil and supercritical CO2 extract of Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. and of Acorus calamus L. Marongiu, B., Piras, A., Porcedda, S., Scorciapino, A. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Soluble proteins from fowl feather keratin. III. Isolation and characteristics of some calamus proteins. Murozono, S., Murayama, K., Akahane, K. J. Biochem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Localization and characterization of specific cornification proteins in avian epidermis. Alibardi, L., Toni, M. Cells Tissues Organs (Print) (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Essential oils analysis. II. Mass spectra identification of terpene and phenylpropane derivatives. Oprean, R., Oprean, L., Tamas, M., Sandulescu, R., Roman, L. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Antioxidant capacities of ten edible North American plants. Acuña, U.M., Atha, D.E., Ma, J., Nee, M.H., Kennelly, E.J. Phytotherapy research : PTR. (2002) [Pubmed]
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