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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Rhizome


High impact information on Rhizome

  • We recently isolated a cDNA encoding a multidrug-resistance protein (MDR)-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (Cjmdr1) from berberine-producing cultured C. japonica cells, which is highly expressed in the rhizome [4].
  • Curcumin, derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. and having both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, inhibits chemically induced carcinogenesis in the skin, forestomach, and colon when it is administered during initiation and/or postinitiation stages [5].
  • We found that emodin (3-methyl-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone), an active component from the rhizome of Rheum palmatum, significantly inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)- induced migration in various human cancer cell lines [6].
  • Aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-anthraquinone) is one of the active constituents from the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum [7].
  • A cysteine protease from ginger rhizome (GP-II) cleaves peptides and proteins with proline at the P(2) position [8].

Biological context of Rhizome


Anatomical context of Rhizome


Associations of Rhizome with chemical compounds

  • Curcumin, contained in the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa Linn, is a naturally occurring phytochemical that has been used widely in India and Indonesia for the treatment of inflammation [19].
  • Molecular cloning of the mitogenic mannose/maltose-specific rhizome lectin from Calystegia sepium [20].
  • We also found that rosolic acid, a constituent isolated from the rhizome of Plantago asiatica L. dramatically increased HO-1 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner [21].
  • The present study was undertaken to explore the suppressive efficacy of zerumbone (ZER), a sesquiterpenoid present in the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet Smith that is used as a condiment in Southeast Asian countries and known to be a potent suppressant of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in cell culture systems [22].
  • In total, 31 gingerol-related compounds were identified from the methanolic crude extracts of fresh ginger rhizome in this study [23].

Gene context of Rhizome

  • Genes from the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA lineages are expressed in developing vascular bundles of the tuberous rhizome, flowering stem and flower Primordia of Eranthis hyemalis [24].
  • Transcription analysis of B-class genes in Eranthis hyemalis using reverse transcribed in situ PCR revealed that both AP3 and PI are expressed in developing vascular bundles in the tuberous rhizome, flowering stem and floral primordia [24].
  • These results imply that the traditional use of C. zedoaria rhizome as anti-inflammatory drug may be explained at least in part, by the inhibition of TNF-alpha production [25].
  • The weight of a single rhizome reached a plateau at the end of May, whilst the content of the major ingredients peaked in the middle of April [26].
  • Curcumin, a phenolic compound from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-cancer activities [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rhizome


  1. Herbal medicine Rhei rhizome prevents liver fibrosis in rat liver cirrhosis induced by a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet. Jin, H., Sakaida, I., Tsuchiya, M., Okita, K. Life Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Curcuma longa L. constituents inhibit sortase A and Staphylococcus aureus cell adhesion to fibronectin. Park, B.S., Kim, J.G., Kim, M.R., Lee, S.E., Takeoka, G.R., Oh, K.B., Kim, J.H. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. The curcuma antioxidants: pharmacological effects and prospects for future clinical use. A review. Miquel, J., Bernd, A., Sempere, J.M., Díaz-Alperi, J., Ramírez, A. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Involvement of CjMDR1, a plant multidrug-resistance-type ATP-binding cassette protein, in alkaloid transport in Coptis japonica. Shitan, N., Bazin, I., Dan, K., Obata, K., Kigawa, K., Ueda, K., Sato, F., Forestier, C., Yazaki, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Chemopreventive effect of curcumin, a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agent, during the promotion/progression stages of colon cancer. Kawamori, T., Lubet, R., Steele, V.E., Kelloff, G.J., Kaskey, R.B., Rao, C.V., Reddy, B.S. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Emodin inhibits tumor cell migration through suppression of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Cdc42/Rac1 pathway. Huang, Q., Shen, H.M., Ong, C.N. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Release of nucleophosmin from the nucleus: Involvement in aloe-emodin-induced human lung non small carcinoma cell apoptosis. Lee, H.Z., Wu, C.H., Chang, S.P. Int. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The 2.1 A structure of a cysteine protease with proline specificity from ginger rhizome, Zingiber officinale. Choi, K.H., Laursen, R.A., Allen, K.N. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Sulphate reduction and nitrogen fixation rates associated with roots, rhizomes and sediments from Zostera noltii and Spartina maritima meadows. Nielsen, L.B., Finster, K., Welsh, D.T., Donelly, A., Herbert, R.A., de Wit, R., Lomstein, B.A. Environ. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Amino-acid sequence and glycan structures of cysteine proteases with proline specificity from ginger rhizome Zingiber officinale. Choi, K.H., Laursen, R.A. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of butylidenephthalide on calcium mobilization in isolated rat aorta. Ko, W.C., Charng, C.Y., Sheu, J.R., Tzeng, S.H., Chen, C.M. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Labdane-type diterpenes with inhibitory effects on increase in vascular permeability and nitric oxide production from Hedychium coronarium. Matsuda, H., Morikawa, T., Sakamoto, Y., Toguchida, I., Yoshikawa, M. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Biotransformation of hinesol isolated from the crude drug Atractylodes lancea by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus cellulosae. Hashimoto, T., Noma, Y., Kato, S., Tanaka, M., Takaoka, S., Asakawa, Y. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. 3,5-Nonadiyne isolated from the rhizome of Cachrys ferulacea inhibits endogenous nitric oxide release by rat peritoneal macrophages. Doković, D.D., Bulatović, V.M., Bozić, B.D., Kataranovski, M.V., Zrakić, T.M., Kovacević, N.N. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of polysaccharides having activity on the reticuloendothelial system from the rhizome of Curcuma longa. Gonda, R., Tomoda, M., Shimizu, N., Kanari, M. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Phenolic compounds from Gastrodia rhizome and relaxant effects of related compounds on isolated smooth muscle preparation. Hayashi, J., Sekine, T., Deguchi, S., Lin, Q., Horie, S., Tsuchiya, S., Yano, S., Watanabe, K., Ikegami, F. Phytochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Axonal and dendritic extension by protopanaxadiol-type saponins from ginseng drugs in SK-N-SH cells. Tohda, C., Matsumoto, N., Zou, K., Meselhy, M.R., Komatsu, K. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Cytoprotective and antioxidant activity of Rhodiola imbricata against tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidative injury in U-937 human macrophages. Kanupriya, n.u.l.l., Prasad, D., Sai Ram, M., Kumar, R., Sawhney, R.C., Sharma, S.K., Ilavazhagan, G., Kumar, D., Banerjee, P.K. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor by curcumin, a phytochemical. Chan, M.M. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Molecular cloning of the mitogenic mannose/maltose-specific rhizome lectin from Calystegia sepium. Van Damme, E.J., Barre, A., Verhaert, P., Rougé, P., Peumans, W.J. FEBS Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Differential activation of heme oxygenase-1 by chalcones and rosolic acid in endothelial cells. Foresti, R., Hoque, M., Monti, D., Green, C.J., Motterlini, R. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Suppression of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice by zerumbone, a subtropical ginger sesquiterpene, and nimesulide: separately and in combination. Murakami, A., Hayashi, R., Tanaka, T., Kwon, K.H., Ohigashi, H., Safitri, R., Takana, T. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Characterization of gingerol-related compounds in ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Jiang, H., Sólyom, A.M., Timmermann, B.N., Gang, D.R. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Genes from the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA lineages are expressed in developing vascular bundles of the tuberous rhizome, flowering stem and flower Primordia of Eranthis hyemalis. Skipper, M. Ann. Bot. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. A curcuminoid and sesquiterpenes as inhibitors of macrophage TNF-alpha release from Curcuma zedoaria. Jang, M.K., Sohn, D.H., Ryu, J.H. Planta Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Time-course accumulation of main bioactive components in the rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong. Li, S.L., Lin, G., Tam, Y.K. Planta Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Induction of apoptosis in human lung cancer cells by curcumin. Radhakrishna Pillai, G., Srivastava, A.S., Hassanein, T.I., Chauhan, D.P., Carrier, E. Cancer Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Quantitative determination of allantoin in Dioscorea rhizome and an Oriental pharmaceutical preparation, hachimi-gan, by high-performance liquid chromatography. Sagara, K., Ojima, M., Suto, K., Yoshida, T. Planta Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and the gingerols inhibit the growth of Cag A+ strains of Helicobacter pylori. Mahady, G.B., Pendland, S.L., Yun, G.S., Lu, Z.Z., Stoia, A. Anticancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Antidiabetic activity of a xanthone compound, mangiferin. Miura, T., Ichiki, H., Hashimoto, I., Iwamoto, N., Kato, M., Kubo, M., Ishihara, E., Komatsu, Y., Okada, M., Ishida, T., Tanigawa, K. Phytomedicine (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of Pinellia ternata lectin on membrane currents of mouse motor nerve terminals. Shi, Y.L., Xu, Y.F., Zhang, H. Sci. China, Ser. B, Chem. Life Sci. Earth Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
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