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Chemical Compound Review

AC1LA63O     [5-(2-amino-6-oxo-3H-purin-9- yl)-3-[[3-[[5...

Synonyms: 5'-pGTCA-3'
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Disease relevance of AIDS097611

  • Among the tetranucleotides, several four-base-pair palindromes tend to be under-represented in phage sequences, probably as a means of restriction avoidance [1].
  • The ability of Vsr to recognize T:G mispairs in sequences related to CCWGG is probably responsible for over- and under-representation of certain tetranucleotides in the E. coli genome [2].
  • The 3' tetranucleotides of the plus strand of all genome segments of RDV and RGDV were found to be the same (---UGAU 3'), except for segment 9 of RDV which had the 3'-terminal sequence---CGAU 3'. The conserved 3'-terminal sequence (---UGAU 3') was the same as that found in the genome segments of WTV, another member of the Phytoreovirus genus [3].
  • Elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotides (EMAST), a new form of microsatellite instability (MSI) affecting tetranucleotide repeats, was recently described to be frequent in several tumor types (e.g., bladder, lung, ovarian, and skin cancers) [4].
  • Isolates of adenovirus types 1 and 2, obtained from 11 infants with prolonged faecal excretion (up to 515 days), were compared by DNA restriction analysis with seven standard endonucleases which recognize hexanucleotides and two additional endonucleases which recognize tetranucleotides [5].

High impact information on AIDS097611

  • The high prevalence of tetranucleotides mediating PV is an exceptional feature of the Hi genome [6].
  • The refractoriness to MMR of hypermutation in Hi tetranucleotides facilitates adaptive switching without the deleterious increase in global mutation rates that accompanies a mutator genotype [6].
  • This involved microinjection into Xenopus laevis oocytes and incubation in a yeast extract of restructured yeast tRNAPhe in which the anticodon GmAA and the 3' adjacent Y nucleoside were substituted by various tetranucleotides ending with a guanosine [7].
  • Although the fragment is devoid of dTTPase and helicase activities, it catalyzes template-directed synthesis of di-, tri-, and tetranucleotides [8].
  • Comparison of these estimates with the direct observations of mutation rates at microsatellites indicates that the earlier suggestion of higher mutation rates of tetranucleotides in comparison with the dinucleotides may stem from a nonrandom sampling of tetranucleotide loci in direct mutation assays [9].

Biological context of AIDS097611


Anatomical context of AIDS097611


Associations of AIDS097611 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of AIDS097611

  • We have measured all six of the 2-fold symmetric dinucleotide sequences that can flank a branch point, and find small preferences (< 650 cal/mol) at 4 degrees C. The largest preference decreases when the 2-fold symmetry is extended to tetranucleotides [22].
  • Substitutions in either of the tetranucleotides abrogated VA RNA function in two independent PKR-based assays, demonstrating the importance of these sequences in vivo [23].
  • The M. jannaschii sequence is unprecedented in its extreme underrepresentation of CTAG tetranucleotides and in the anomalous distribution of CTAG sites around the genome [12].
  • A blood sample and six tissue samples were collected from each case.Seven STRs were chosen for study, the tetranucleotides HUMVWA31/A, HUMTH01, HUMF13A1, and HUMFES/FPS, and the hyperpolymorphic markers HUMAPOAI1, D11S554 and HUMACTBP2 [24].
  • The GATA and GACA arrays were not perfect but were heavily degenerated, in that they contained many tetranucleotides that might have been derived by a single point mutation from GATA or GACA [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AIDS097611


  1. Over- and under-representation of short oligonucleotides in DNA sequences. Burge, C., Campbell, A.M., Karlin, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Very short patch repair: reducing the cost of cytosine methylation. Lieb, M., Bhagwat, A.S. Mol. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Viruses in the phytoreovirus genus of the Reoviridae family have the same conserved terminal sequences. Kudo, H., Uyeda, I., Shikata, E. J. Gen. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotides (EMAST) and mismatch repair gene expression in prostate cancer. Burger, M., Denzinger, S., Hammerschmied, C.G., Tannapfel, A., Obermann, E.C., Wieland, W.F., Hartmann, A., Stoehr, R. J. Mol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Persistent enteral infections with adenovirus types 1 and 2 in infants: no evidence of reinfection. Adrian, T., Schäfer, G., Cooney, M.K., Fox, J.P., Wigand, R. Epidemiol. Infect. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Mutations in polI but not mutSLH destabilize Haemophilus influenzae tetranucleotide repeats. Bayliss, C.D., van de Ven, T., Moxon, E.R. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Enzymatic conversion of guanosine 3' adjacent to the anticodon of yeast tRNAPhe to N1-methylguanosine and the wye nucleoside: dependence on the anticodon sequence. Droogmans, L., Grosjean, H. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. An N-terminal fragment of the gene 4 helicase/primase of bacteriophage T7 retains primase activity in the absence of helicase activity. Frick, D.N., Baradaran, K., Richardson, C.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Relative mutation rates at di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide microsatellite loci. Chakraborty, R., Kimmel, M., Stivers, D.N., Davison, L.J., Deka, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Frequent generation of nonrescuable reorganized Moloney murine sarcoma viral genomes. Shtivelman, E., Zakut, R., Canaani, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Global analysis of genomic texts: the distribution of AGCT tetranucleotides in the Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis genomes predicts translational frameshifting and ribosomal hopping in several genes. Hénaut, A., Lisacek, F., Nitschké, P., Moszer, I., Danchin, A. Electrophoresis (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Compositional biases of bacterial genomes and evolutionary implications. Karlin, S., Mrázek, J., Campbell, A.M. J. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Tetranucleotide repeats in coding regions: no evidence for involvement in EMAST carcinogenesis. Kloor, M., Schwitalle, Y., von Knebel Doeberitz, M., Wentzensen, N. J. Mol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. RNA Fragmentation in MALDI Mass Spectrometry Studied by H/D-Exchange: Mechanisms of General Applicability to Nucleic Acids. Andersen, T.E., Kirpekar, F., Haselmann, K.F. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Enzymatic 2'-O-methylation of the wobble nucleoside of eukaryotic tRNAPhe: specificity depends on structural elements outside the anticodon loop. Droogmans, L., Haumont, E., de Henau, S., Grosjean, H. EMBO J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Studies of specificity of deoxyribonuclease from salmon testes. Sieliwanowicz, B., Yamamoto, M., Stasiuk, L., Laskowski, M. Biochemistry (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. Mechanism of inhibition of eukaryotic translational initiation by the trinucleotide ApUpG. Wagner, T., Sigler, P.B., Gross, M. FEBS Lett. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Tetranucleotides as effectors for the binding of initiator tRNA to Escherichia coli ribosomes. Schmitt, M., Manderschied, U., Kyriatsoulis, A., Brinckmann, U., Gassen, H.G. Eur. J. Biochem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. DNA "melting" proteins. III. Fluorescence "mapping" of the nucleic acid binding site of bacteriophage T4 gene 32-protein. Kelly, R.C., von Hippel, P.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Combined pH gradient and anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of oligodeoxyribonucleotides. Lu, T., Gray, H.B. Journal of chromatography. A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. The NMR structure of estrone (Es)-tethered tandem DNA duplex: [d(5'pCAGCp3')-Es] + [Es-d(5'pTCCA3')]: d(5'pTGGAGCTG3'). Denisov, A.Y., Sandström, A., Maltseva, T.V., Pyshnyi, D.V., Ivanova, E.M., Zarytova, V.F., Chattopadhyaya, J. J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Symmetric Holliday junction crossover isomers. Zhang, S., Seeman, N.C. J. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Secondary and tertiary structure in the central domain of adenovirus type 2 VA RNA I. Ma, Y., Mathews, M.B. RNA (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Microsatellite stability in human post-mortem tissues. Hoff-Olsen, P., Jacobsen, S., Mevåg, B., Olaisen, B. Forensic Sci. Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Molecular characterization of GATA/GACA microsatellite repeats in tomato. Vosman, B., Arens, P. Genome (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Sequence analysis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides by mass spectrometry. 2. Application of computerized pattern recognition to sequence determination of di-, tri-, and tetranucleotides. Burgard, D.R., Perone, S.P., Wiebers, J.L. Biochemistry (1977) [Pubmed]
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