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Gene Review

Ercc1  -  excision repair cross-complementing rodent...

Mus musculus

Synonyms: DNA excision repair protein ERCC-1, Ercc-1
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Disease relevance of Ercc1

  • Mice carrying a genetic defect in Ercc1 display symptoms suggestive of a progressive, segmental progeria, indicating that disruption of one or both of these DNA damage repair pathways accelerates aging [1].
  • Mice with skin-specific DNA repair gene (Ercc1) inactivation are hypersensitive to ultraviolet irradiation-induced skin cancer and show more rapid actinic progression [2].

High impact information on Ercc1

  • The mutation frequency in germline Smicro segments and recombined Smicro-Sgamma3 segments cloned from Ercc1(-)(/)(-) splenic B cells induced to switch in culture was identical to that of wild-type (WT) littermates [3].
  • Deletion of the nucleotide excision repair gene Ercc1 reduces immunoglobulin class switching and alters mutations near switch recombination junctions [3].
  • To determine if DNA repair is critical to prolonged hematopoietic function, hematopoiesis in Ercc1-/- mice was compared to that in young and old wild-type mice [1].
  • Ercc1-/- mice (3-week-old) exhibited multilineage cytopenia and fatty replacement of bone marrow, similar to old wild-type mice [1].
  • Our observations have implications for the mechanism of gene targeting in mammalian cells and define a new role for Ercc1-Xpf in mammalian homologous recombination [4].

Biological context of Ercc1


Anatomical context of Ercc1

  • We conclude that the repair functions of Ercc1 are required in both male and female germ cells at all stages of their maturation [6].
  • An increased level of DNA strand breaks and oxidative DNA damage was found in Ercc1-deficient testis and increased apoptosis was noted in male germ cells [6].
  • Here we demonstrate that although Ercc1 is dispensable for recombination between sister chromatids, it is essential for targeted gene replacement in mouse embryonic stem cells [4].
  • Unique among the NER gene knockouts, Ercc1 null mice are severely runted with high levels of hepatocyte polyploidy [7].

Other interactions of Ercc1

  • However, genetic data implicate the Ercc1-Xpf endonuclease and proteins required for homologous recombination-mediated double-strand break (DSB) repair [5].
  • It is concluded that while increased genomic instability could play a causal role in the mildly accelerated aging phenotype in the Xpa-null mice or in the severe progeroid symptoms of the Ercc1-mutant mice, shortened lifespan in mice with defects in transcription-related repair do not depend upon increased mutation accumulation [8].
  • The Ercc1-Xpf heterodimer, a highly conserved structure-specific endonuclease, functions in multiple DNA repair pathways that are pivotal for maintaining genome stability, including nucleotide excision repair, interstrand crosslink repair and homologous recombination [4].
  • Levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21, were increased in the nuclei of Ercc1 null hepatocytes, and this increase was concentrated in, but not confined to, the polyploid hepatocytes [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ercc1

  • Surprisingly, the role of Ercc1-Xpf in gene targeting is distinct from its previously identified role in removing nonhomologous termini from recombination intermediates because it was required irrespective of whether the ends of the DNA targeting constructs were heterologous or homologous to the genomic locus [4].


  1. Reduced hematopoietic reserves in DNA interstrand crosslink repair-deficient Ercc1-/- mice. Prasher, J.M., Lalai, A.S., Heijmans-Antonissen, C., Ploemacher, R.E., Hoeijmakers, J.H., Touw, I.P., Niedernhofer, L.J. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Mice with skin-specific DNA repair gene (Ercc1) inactivation are hypersensitive to ultraviolet irradiation-induced skin cancer and show more rapid actinic progression. Doig, J., Anderson, C., Lawrence, N.J., Selfridge, J., Brownstein, D.G., Melton, D.W. Oncogene (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Deletion of the nucleotide excision repair gene Ercc1 reduces immunoglobulin class switching and alters mutations near switch recombination junctions. Schrader, C.E., Vardo, J., Linehan, E., Twarog, M.Z., Niedernhofer, L.J., Hoeijmakers, J.H., Stavnezer, J. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. The structure-specific endonuclease Ercc1-Xpf is required for targeted gene replacement in embryonic stem cells. Niedernhofer, L.J., Essers, J., Weeda, G., Beverloo, B., de Wit, J., Muijtjens, M., Odijk, H., Hoeijmakers, J.H., Kanaar, R. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. The structure-specific endonuclease Ercc1-Xpf is required to resolve DNA interstrand cross-link-induced double-strand breaks. Niedernhofer, L.J., Odijk, H., Budzowska, M., van Drunen, E., Maas, A., Theil, A.F., de Wit, J., Jaspers, N.G., Beverloo, H.B., Hoeijmakers, J.H., Kanaar, R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. DNA repair gene Ercc1 is essential for normal spermatogenesis and oogenesis and for functional integrity of germ cell DNA in the mouse. Hsia, K.T., Millar, M.R., King, S., Selfridge, J., Redhead, N.J., Melton, D.W., Saunders, P.T. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of premature liver polyploidy in DNA repair (Ercc1)-deficient mice. Chipchase, M.D., O'Neill, M., Melton, D.W. Hepatology (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Increased genomic instability is not a prerequisite for shortened lifespan in DNA repair deficient mice. Dollé, M.E., Busuttil, R.A., Garcia, A.M., Wijnhoven, S., van Drunen, E., Niedernhofer, L.J., van der Horst, G., Hoeijmakers, J.H., van Steeg, H., Vijg, J. Mutat. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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