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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Polyploidy


High impact information on Polyploidy


Chemical compound and disease context of Polyploidy


Biological context of Polyploidy


Anatomical context of Polyploidy

  • As Aurora kinases are overexpressed in a large number of cancers, and ectopic expression of Aurora generates polyploid cells containing multiple centrosomes, it has been tempting to suggest that Aurora overexpression provokes genetic instability underlying the tumorigenesis [20].
  • Fertilization of Fmn2(-/-) oocytes results in polyploid embryo formation, recurrent pregnancy loss and sub-fertility in Fmn2(-/-) females [21].
  • Enforced expression of SCL at high levels did not provoke differentiation, but GATA-1 induced the appearance of megakaryocytes as assessed by morphology, the presence of acetylcholinesterase and a polyploid DNA content [22].
  • Coculture of ES cells for 8-12 days with OP9 stromal cells in the presence of thrombopoietin, IL-6, and IL-11 resulted in the development of large, polyploid megakaryocytes that produced proplatelets [23].
  • In this report, it is demonstrated that SDF-1 induces the expression and release of gelatinase B (MMP-9) by purified mature polyploid human MKs and an adeno-CXCR4-infected megakaryocytic cell line [24].

Associations of Polyploidy with chemical compounds


Gene context of Polyploidy

  • Electron microscopy of the cells that transmigrated through the BMEC monolayers in response to SDF-1 demonstrated the presence of intact polyploid MKs as well as MKs in the process of platelet formation [30].
  • Polyploidy induced by survivin antagonists is accentuated in p21-deficient cells, and corrected by exogenous expression of p21 [31].
  • In addition, p21 and p27 were coexpressed in the majority of mature polyploid megakaryocytes [32].
  • PD98059 and GF109203X, inhibitors of ERK1/ERK2 pathway and PKC, respectively, blocked PPF, while adhesion, spreading, and polyploidy were normal [33].
  • Here we show that enforced expression in 416B cells of either the GATA-2 or GATA-3 gene also induces megakaryocytic differentiation, as assessed by cellular morphology, acetylcholinesterase activity, polyploid DNA content, and loss of Mac-1 expression [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Polyploidy


  1. Identification and characterization of a novel Ste20/germinal center kinase-related kinase, polyploidy-associated protein kinase. Nishigaki, K., Thompson, D., Yugawa, T., Rulli, K., Hanson, C., Cmarik, J., Gutkind, J.S., Teramoto, H., Ruscetti, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Inhibition of nuclear polyploidy by propranolol in aortic smooth muscle cells of hypertensive rats. Leitschuh, M., Chobanian, A.V. Hypertension (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Vascular smooth muscle polyploidy and cardiac hypertrophy in genetic hypertension. Dominiczak, A.F., Devlin, A.M., Lee, W.K., Anderson, N.H., Bohr, D.F., Reid, J.L. Hypertension (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Angiotensin II induces cardiovascular hypertrophy in perindopril-treated rats. Black, M.J., Bertram, J.F., Campbell, J.H., Campbell, G.R. J. Hypertens. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Altered cell cycle progression and aberrant mitosis in adenovirus-infected rodent cells. Murray, J.D., Bellett, A.J., Braithwaite, A., Waldron, L.K., Taylor, I.W. J. Cell. Physiol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. The Drosophila plutonium and pan gu genes regulate entry into S phase at fertilization. Shamanski, F.L., Orr-Weaver, T.L. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Transplanted bone marrow regenerates liver by cell fusion. Vassilopoulos, G., Wang, P.R., Russell, D.W. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Fission yeast WD-repeat protein pop1 regulates genome ploidy through ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation of the CDK inhibitor Rum1 and the S-phase initiator Cdc18. Kominami, K., Toda, T. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. The Drosophila endocycle is controlled by Cyclin E and lacks a checkpoint ensuring S-phase completion. Lilly, M.A., Spradling, A.C. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Diploidy of Drosophila imaginal cells is maintained by a transcriptional repressor encoded by escargot. Fuse, N., Hirose, S., Hayashi, S. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of enalapril on aortic smooth muscle cell polyploidy in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Black, M.J., Adams, M.A., Bobik, A., Campbell, J.H., Campbell, G.R. J. Hypertens. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Bradykinin induces hyperpolarizations in rat glioma cells and in neuroblastoma X glioma hybrid cells. Reiser, G., Hamprecht, B. Brain Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Activation of a K+ conductance by bradykinin and by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate in rat glioma cells: involvement of intracellular and extracellular Ca2+. Reiser, G., Binmöller, F.J., Strong, P.N., Hamprecht, B. Brain Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Analysis of the relA gene product of Escherichia coli. Pedersen, F.S., Kjeldgaard, N.O. Eur. J. Biochem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Segregation pattern of kanamycin resistance marker in Azotobacter vinelandii did not show the constraints expected in a polyploid bacterium. Pulakat, L., Efuet, E.T., Gavini, N. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Fission yeast Cut1 and Cut2 are essential for sister chromatid separation, concentrate along the metaphase spindle and form large complexes. Funabiki, H., Kumada, K., Yanagida, M. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Polyploids require Bik1 for kinetochore-microtubule attachment. Lin, H., de Carvalho, P., Kho, D., Tai, C.Y., Pierre, P., Fink, G.R., Pellman, D. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Survivin is required for a sustained spindle checkpoint arrest in response to lack of tension. Lens, S.M., Wolthuis, R.M., Klompmaker, R., Kauw, J., Agami, R., Brummelkamp, T., Kops, G., Medema, R.H. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Differential requirements for survivin in hematopoietic cell development. Gurbuxani, S., Xu, Y., Keerthivasan, G., Wickrema, A., Crispino, J.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Aurora kinases, aneuploidy and cancer, a coincidence or a real link? Giet, R., Petretti, C., Prigent, C. Trends Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Formin-2, polyploidy, hypofertility and positioning of the meiotic spindle in mouse oocytes. Leader, B., Lim, H., Carabatsos, M.J., Harrington, A., Ecsedy, J., Pellman, D., Maas, R., Leder, P. Nat. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. GATA-1 but not SCL induces megakaryocytic differentiation in an early myeloid line. Visvader, J.E., Elefanty, A.G., Strasser, A., Adams, J.M. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Megakaryocytes derived from embryonic stem cells implicate CalDAG-GEFI in integrin signaling. Eto, K., Murphy, R., Kerrigan, S.W., Bertoni, A., Stuhlmann, H., Nakano, T., Leavitt, A.D., Shattil, S.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Stromal-derived factor 1-induced megakaryocyte migration and platelet production is dependent on matrix metalloproteinases. Lane, W.J., Dias, S., Hattori, K., Heissig, B., Choy, M., Rabbany, S.Y., Wood, J., Moore, M.A., Rafii, S. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Multiple origins of polyploids in the Glycine tabacina complex inferred from chloroplast DNA polymorphism. Doyle, J.J., Doyle, J.L., Brown, A.H., Grace, J.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Characterization of the p53-dependent postmitotic checkpoint following spindle disruption. Lanni, J.S., Jacks, T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Aphidicolin, an inhibitor of DNA replication, blocks the TPA-induced differentiation of a human megakaryoblastic cell line, MEG-O1. Murate, T., Hotta, T., Tsushita, K., Suzuki, M., Yoshida, T., Saga, S., Saito, H., Yoshida, S. Blood (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Growth and differentiation of the human megakaryoblastic cell line (ELF-153): a model for early stages of megakaryocytopoiesis. Mouthon, M.A., Freund, M., Titeux, M., Katz, A., Guichard, J., Breton-Gorius, J., Vainchenker, W. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Biotransformation in carcinogen-induced diploid and polyploid hepatocytes separated by centrifugal elutriation. Watkins, J.B., Thierau, D., Schwarz, L.R. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Transendothelial migration of megakaryocytes in response to stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) enhances platelet formation. Hamada, T., Möhle, R., Hesselgesser, J., Hoxie, J., Nachman, R.L., Moore, M.A., Rafii, S. J. Exp. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Pleiotropic cell-division defects and apoptosis induced by interference with survivin function. Li, F., Ackermann, E.J., Bennett, C.F., Rothermel, A.L., Plescia, J., Tognin, S., Villa, A., Marchisio, P.C., Altieri, D.C. Nat. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Role of p21(Cip1/Waf1) in cell-cycle exit of endomitotic megakaryocytes. Baccini, V., Roy, L., Vitrat, N., Chagraoui, H., Sabri, S., Le Couedic, J.P., Debili, N., Wendling, F., Vainchenker, W. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Fibronectin- and protein kinase C-mediated activation of ERK/MAPK are essential for proplateletlike formation. Jiang, F., Jia, Y., Cohen, I. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Megakaryocytic differentiation induced in 416B myeloid cells by GATA-2 and GATA-3 transgenes or 5-azacytidine is tightly coupled to GATA-1 expression. Visvader, J., Adams, J.M. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Separase: a universal trigger for sister chromatid disjunction but not chromosome cycle progression. Wirth, K.G., Wutz, G., Kudo, N.R., Desdouets, C., Zetterberg, A., Taghybeeglu, S., Seznec, J., Ducos, G.M., Ricci, R., Firnberg, N., Peters, J.M., Nasmyth, K. J. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  36. The involvement of human-nuc gene in polyploidization of K562 cell line. Cavalloni, G., Danè, A., Piacibello, W., Bruno, S., Lamas, E., Bréchot, C., Aglietta, M. Exp. Hematol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. Influence of donor age on vinblastine-induced chromosome malsegregation in cultured peripheral lymphocytes. Leopardi, P., Marcon, F., Dobrowolny, G., Zijno, A., Crebelli, R. Mutagenesis (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Preferential ex vivo expansion of megakaryocytes from human cord blood CD34+-enriched cells in the presence of thrombopoietin and limiting amounts of stem cell factor and Flt-3 ligand. Proulx, C., Boyer, L., Hurnanen, D.R., Lemieux, R. J. Hematother. Stem Cell Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Zona pellucida solubility and cortical granule complements in human oocytes following assisted reproductive techniques. Manna, C., Rienzi, L., Greco, E., Sbracia, M., Rahman, A., Poverini, R., Siracusa, G., De Felici, M. Zygote (2001) [Pubmed]
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