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Gene Review

Tcf15  -  transcription factor 15

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Bhlhec2, Meso1, Paraxis, Protein bHLH-EC2, TCF-15, ...
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Disease relevance of Tcf15


High impact information on Tcf15

  • Requirement of the paraxis gene for somite formation and musculoskeletal patterning [3].
  • Here we show that in mice homozygous for a paraxis null mutation, cells from the paraxial mesoderm are unable to form epithelia and so somite formation is disrupted [3].
  • Meso1, a basic-helix-loop-helix protein involved in mammalian presomitic mesoderm development [4].
  • In the medial myotome, where the expression of the myogenic factor Myf5 is required for commitment of myoblasts, the migration pattern of committed myoblasts was altered in the absence of Paraxis [5].
  • This delay correlated with an absence of MyoD expression in these regions, indicating that Paraxis is required for commitment of cells from the dorsolateral dermomyotome to the myogenic lineage [5].

Biological context of Tcf15


Anatomical context of Tcf15

  • Our data demonstrate that Paraxis is an important regulator of a subset of the myogenic progenitor cells from the dorsolateral dermomyotome that are fated to form the non-migratory hypaxial muscles [5].
  • Further, in the absence of paraxis, Pax-1 is no longer expressed in the somites and presomitic mesoderm [6].
  • Paraxis is a member of this subfamily, and it has been shown to regulate morphogenetic events during somitogenesis, including the transition of cells from mesenchyme to epithelium and maintaining anterior/posterior polarity [6].
  • Mice deficient in paraxis exhibit a caudal truncation of the axial skeleton and fusion of the vertebrae [6].
  • Paraxis expression precedes that of scleraxis in the region of the somite fated to form the axial skeleton and tendons and is able to direct transcription from an E-box found in the scleraxis promoter [6].

Associations of Tcf15 with chemical compounds

  • Meso-to-meso ethyne-bridged tris[(porphinato)zinc(II)] (PZn(3)) near-infrared (NIR) fluorophores (lambda(em)(max) approximately 800 nm) can be rendered sufficiently amphiphilic to enable their facile incorporation into the hydrophobic core of the apo form of low-density lipoprotein (apo-LDL) [7].

Physical interactions of Tcf15

  • Paraxis is able to bind to a set of E-boxes that overlaps with the closely related scleraxis [6].

Regulatory relationships of Tcf15


Other interactions of Tcf15

  • Here we demonstrate that paraxis can function as a transcriptional activator when it forms a heterodimer with E12 [6].
  • Collectively, these data indicate a role for paraxis in maintaining somite polarity that is independent of Notch signaling [9].
  • Overexpressing Snail 2 in the chick embryo prevents cyclic Lfng and Meso 1 expression in the PSM and disrupts somite formation [10].


  1. Meso-substituted cationic porphyrins interact with dsDNA and exhibit different localization patterns in radiation-induced fibrosarcoma cells. Tobin, W.R., Greene, R.S. Anticancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Strategies for safe and effective therapeutic measures for chronic arsenic and lead poisoning. Kalia, K., Flora, S.J. Journal of occupational health. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Requirement of the paraxis gene for somite formation and musculoskeletal patterning. Burgess, R., Rawls, A., Brown, D., Bradley, A., Olson, E.N. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Meso1, a basic-helix-loop-helix protein involved in mammalian presomitic mesoderm development. Blanar, M.A., Crossley, P.H., Peters, K.G., Steingrímsson, E., Copeland, N.G., Jenkins, N.A., Martin, G.R., Rutter, W.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Differential regulation of epaxial and hypaxial muscle development by paraxis. Wilson-Rawls, J., Hurt, C.R., Parsons, S.M., Rawls, A. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Paraxis is a basic helix-loop-helix protein that positively regulates transcription through binding to specific E-box elements. Wilson-Rawls, J., Rhee, J.M., Rawls, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Near-infrared optical imaging of B16 melanoma cells via low-density lipoprotein-mediated uptake and delivery of high emission dipole strength tris[(porphinato)zinc(II)] fluorophores. Wu, S.P., Lee, I., Ghoroghchian, P.P., Frail, P.R., Zheng, G., Glickson, J.D., Therien, M.J. Bioconjug. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. PKBalpha is required for adipose differentiation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Baudry, A., Yang, Z.Z., Hemmings, B.A. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. The anterior/posterior polarity of somites is disrupted in paraxis-deficient mice. Johnson, J., Rhee, J., Parsons, S.M., Brown, D., Olson, E.N., Rawls, A. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Oscillations of the snail genes in the presomitic mesoderm coordinate segmental patterning and morphogenesis in vertebrate somitogenesis. Dale, J.K., Malapert, P., Chal, J., Vilhais-Neto, G., Maroto, M., Johnson, T., Jayasinghe, S., Trainor, P., Herrmann, B., Pourquié, O. Dev. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
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