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Gene Review

PRAME  -  preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CT130, MAPE, Melanoma antigen preferentially expressed in tumors, OIP-4, OIP4, ...
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Disease relevance of PRAME


High impact information on PRAME

  • The human tumor antigen PRAME is a dominant repressor of retinoic acid receptor signaling [1].
  • PRAME is present at RAR target promoters and inhibits RA-induced differentiation, growth arrest, and apoptosis [1].
  • CTL clones induced against the four identified epitopes (VLDGLDVLL, PRA(100-108); SLYSFPEPEA, PRA(142-151); ALYVDSLFFL, PRA(300-309); and SLLQHLIGL, PRA(425-433)) lysed melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, lung carcinoma, and mammary carcinoma cell lines expressing PRAME and HLA-A(*)0201 [5].
  • We report the efficient identification of four human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A(*)0201-presented cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes in the tumor-associated antigen PRAME using an improved "reverse immunology" strategy [5].
  • Efficient identification of novel HLA-A(*)0201-presented cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes in the widely expressed tumor antigen PRAME by proteasome-mediated digestion analysis [5].

Biological context of PRAME


Anatomical context of PRAME


Regulatory relationships of PRAME

  • PRAME (Preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma) has been previously identified as a melanoma antigen recognized by cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and found to be expressed in a variety of cancer cells including leukaemic cells [4].

Other interactions of PRAME


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PRAME

  • For more precise quantification of PRAME expression, real-time RT-PCR was performed in 88 patients of the above cohort and 7 additional patients, thus leaving a total of 101 patients that were analyzed with either method [2].
  • Therefore, quantitative monitoring of the PRAME gene using real-time PCR method may be useful for detecting minimal residual disease and to predict subsequent relapse, especially in patients without known genetic markers [4].
  • Significant reductions in the PRAME expression were observed in all patients after chemotherapy [4].
  • This might constitute a problem in using PRAME for tumor immunotherapy [13].
  • In accordance with our findings in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) patients, the rate of disease-free survival was higher and white blood cell counts at diagnosis were lower in patients with an overexpression of PRAME [6].


  1. The human tumor antigen PRAME is a dominant repressor of retinoic acid receptor signaling. Epping, M.T., Wang, L., Edel, M.J., Carlée, L., Hernandez, M., Bernards, R. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. The tumor-associated antigen PRAME is universally expressed in high-stage neuroblastoma and associated with poor outcome. Oberthuer, A., Hero, B., Spitz, R., Berthold, F., Fischer, M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification of a melanoma antigen, PRAME, as a BCR/ABL-inducible gene. Watari, K., Tojo, A., Nagamura-Inoue, T., Nagamura, F., Takeshita, A., Fukushima, T., Motoji, T., Tani, K., Asano, S. FEBS Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Quantitative monitoring of the PRAME gene for the detection of minimal residual disease in leukaemia. Matsushita, M., Ikeda, H., Kizaki, M., Okamoto, S., Ogasawara, M., Ikeda, Y., Kawakami, Y. Br. J. Haematol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Efficient identification of novel HLA-A(*)0201-presented cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes in the widely expressed tumor antigen PRAME by proteasome-mediated digestion analysis. Kessler, J.H., Beekman, N.J., Bres-Vloemans, S.A., Verdijk, P., van Veelen, P.A., Kloosterman-Joosten, A.M., Vissers, D.C., ten Bosch, G.J., Kester, M.G., Sijts, A., Wouter Drijfhout, J., Ossendorp, F., Offringa, R., Melief, C.J. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. PRAME gene expression in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Steinbach, D., Viehmann, S., Zintl, F., Gruhn, B. Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Tumor-associated antigen preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) induces caspase-independent cell death in vitro and reduces tumorigenicity in vivo. Tajeddine, N., Gala, J.L., Louis, M., Van Schoor, M., Tombal, B., Gailly, P. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Childhood acute myelogenous leukaemia: Association between PRAME, apoptosis- and MDR-related gene expression. Goellner, S., Steinbach, D., Schenk, T., Gruhn, B., Zintl, F., Ramsay, E., Saluz, H.P. Eur. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. The cancer germ-line genes MAGE-1, MAGE-3 and PRAME are commonly expressed by human myeloma cells. Pellat-Deceunynck, C., Mellerin, M.P., Labarrière, N., Jego, G., Moreau-Aubry, A., Harousseau, J.L., Jotereau, F., Bataille, R. Eur. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Heterogeneous expression of the tumor-associated antigens RAGE-1, PRAME, and glycoprotein 75 in human renal cell carcinoma: candidates for T-cell-based immunotherapies? Neumann, E., Engelsberg, A., Decker, J., Störkel, S., Jaeger, E., Huber, C., Seliger, B. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. PRAME, a gene encoding an antigen recognized on a human melanoma by cytolytic T cells, is expressed in acute leukaemia cells. van Baren, N., Chambost, H., Ferrant, A., Michaux, L., Ikeda, H., Millard, I., Olive, D., Boon, T., Coulie, P.G. Br. J. Haematol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Melanoma-associated antigens recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Kirkin, A.F., Dzhandzhugazyan, K., Zeuthen, J. APMIS (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Clinical implications of PRAME gene expression in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Steinbach, D., Hermann, J., Viehmann, S., Zintl, F., Gruhn, B. Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. (2002) [Pubmed]
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