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Gene Review

Syn2  -  synapsin II

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Synapsin II, Synapsin-2
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Disease relevance of Syn2


Psychiatry related information on Syn2

  • Synapsin II variants were also present in 56% of samples from individuals with schizophrenia and 41% of samples from individuals with Huntington's disease [4].

High impact information on Syn2

  • Synapsin I and synapsin II are neuron-specific phosphoproteins that have a role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and in the formation of nerve terminals [2].
  • These data suggest that synapsin II participates in cytoskeletal organization during the early stages of nerve cell development [2].
  • Synapsin II variants were not found in any of 18 rodent models of alcoholism, aging, or vitamin B deficiency, suggesting that synapsin II variants may be a uniquely human trait [4].
  • To determine the source of synapsin II immunoreactivity in the glomeruli, the olfactory epithelium was damaged to decrease the primary afferent input to the bulb [5].
  • These experiments identified a region between amino acids 43 and 121 of the amino-terminal portion of synapsin II which binds to synaptic vesicles [3].

Biological context of Syn2

  • We hypothesize that the beta-adrenergic agonist-stimulated phosphorylation of synapsin I and synapsin II in young rats plays a role in the increase in transmitter release produced by NE in the dentate [6].
  • The opiate-induced regulation of the gene expression of synapsin II isoforms could be viewed as one of the cellular adaptations to the persistent opiate effects and may be involved in the molecular mechanism underlying opiate tolerance and/or dependence [7].
  • A possible mechanism for the observed haloperidol-induced increase in striatal synapsin II expression, along with the implications of this up-regulation in chronic haloperidol treatment, is presented [8].

Anatomical context of Syn2


Associations of Syn2 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Syn2

  • ATP binding to the different synapsins is directly regulated by Ca2+ in a dramatically different fashion: Ca2+ activates ATP binding to synapsin I, has no effect on synapsin II, and inhibits synapsin III [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Syn2


  1. Increases in mRNA levels for synapsin I but not synapsin II in the hippocampus of the rat kindling model of epilepsy. Morimoto, K., Sato, K., Sato, S., Suemaru, S., Sato, T., Yamada, N., Hayabara, T. Seizure : the journal of the British Epilepsy Association. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Aberrant neurites and synaptic vesicle protein deficiency in synapsin II-depleted neurons. Ferreira, A., Kosik, K.S., Greengard, P., Han, H.Q. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Synapsin II. Mapping of a domain in the NH2-terminal region which binds to small synaptic vesicles. Thiel, G., Südhof, T.C., Greengard, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. An analysis of synapsin II, a neuronal phosphoprotein, in postmortem brain tissue from alcoholic and neuropsychiatrically ill adults and medically ill children and young adults. Grebb, J.A., Greengard, P. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Differential distribution of the synapsins in the rat olfactory bulb. Stone, L.M., Browning, M.D., Finger, T.E. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Norepinephrine and isoproterenol increase the phosphorylation of synapsin I and synapsin II in dentate slices of young but not aged Fisher 344 rats. Parfitt, K.D., Hoffer, B.J., Browning, M.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Differential distribution of synapsin IIa and IIb mRNAs in various brain structures and the effect of chronic morphine administration on the regional expression of these isoforms. Matus-Leibovitch, N., Nevo, I., Vogel, Z. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. cDNA array reveals differential gene expression following chronic neuroleptic administration: implications of synapsin II in haloperidol treatment. Chong, V.Z., Young, L.T., Mishra, R.K. J. Neurochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Activators of protein kinase C increase the phosphorylation of the synapsins at sites phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in the rat hippocampal slice. Browning, M.D., Dudek, E.M. Synapse (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Synapsin III, a novel synapsin with an unusual regulation by Ca2+. Hosaka, M., Südhof, T.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
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