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Gene Review

Syn1  -  synapsin I

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Synapsin I, Synapsin-1
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Disease relevance of Syn1


Psychiatry related information on Syn1

  • Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet counteracted all of the studied effects of FPI, that is, normalized levels of BDNF and associated synapsin I and CREB, reduced oxidative damage, and counteracted learning disability [6].

High impact information on Syn1


Chemical compound and disease context of Syn1


Biological context of Syn1


Anatomical context of Syn1


Associations of Syn1 with chemical compounds

  • Taken together, our results demonstrate new aspects of the glucose-dependent actions of ERK1/2 in beta-cells exerted on cytoplasmic proteins, including synapsin I, and participating in the overall glucose-induced insulin secretion [17].
  • In a synaptosomal preparation, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) increased mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-dependent synapsin I phosphorylation and acutely facilitated evoked glutamate release [21].
  • In the present study, two crystal structures of the C domain of rat synapsin I (rSynI-C) in complex with Ca(2+) and ATP reveal that this protein can form a tetramer and that a flexible loop (the "multifunctional loop") contacts bound ATP [22].
  • In addition, synapsin I, phospho-synapsin I, cyclic-AMP response-element-binding protein (CREB), phospho-CREB, calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII), mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase I and II (MAPKI and MAPKII), and protein kinase C (PKC) were analyzed by western blot [23].
  • Immunohistochemical detection of synapsin I and microtubule associated protein 2 revealed the synapse loss between neurons intoxicated by aluminum maltolate [24].

Physical interactions of Syn1

  • Male adult rats were maintained on a HF diet for 2 months with or without 500 IU/kg of vitamin E. Supplementation of the HF diet with vitamin E dramatically reduced oxidative damage, normalized levels of BDNF, synapsin I and cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), caused by the consumption of the HF diet [25].
  • Synapsin I interacts with c-Src and stimulates its tyrosine kinase activity [26].
  • Neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), synapsin I, and nNOS adapter protein (CAPON) constitute a ternary complex necessary for specific NO and synapsin functions at a presynaptic level [27].

Enzymatic interactions of Syn1

  • FPI alone resulted in significantly elevated levels of hippocampal phosphorylated synapsin I and phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-binding-protein (CREB) at postinjury day 7, of which phosphorylated CREB remained elevated at postinjury day 21 [28].
  • A calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase from mammalian brain that phosphorylates Synapsin I: partial purification and characterization [29].
  • We reported previously that phosphorylated neuromodulin and phosphorylated synapsin I content increased in the striata of amphetamine-sensitized rats; however, the neuronal pathways responsible for the increase were unclear [30].

Co-localisations of Syn1


Regulatory relationships of Syn1


Other interactions of Syn1

  • ATP binding to the different synapsins is directly regulated by Ca2+ in a dramatically different fashion: Ca2+ activates ATP binding to synapsin I, has no effect on synapsin II, and inhibits synapsin III [16].
  • Synapsin III, a novel synapsin with an unusual regulation by Ca2+ [16].
  • To figure out the effect of PLD on synapsin I expression, we treated the neural stem cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) to stimulate PLD activity [19].
  • These results indicate that exercise induces plasticity of select hippocampal transsynaptic circuitry, possibly comprising a spatial restriction on synapsin I regulation by BDNF [37].
  • BDNF and synapsin I mRNAs were lower and NT-3 levels were higher in the lumbar hemicord ipsilateral to the BTX-A injection [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Syn1


  1. Alterations in BDNF and synapsin I within the occipital cortex and hippocampus after mild traumatic brain injury in the developing rat: reflections of injury-induced neuroplasticity. Griesbach, G.S., Hovda, D.A., Molteni, R., Gomez-Pinilla, F. J. Neurotrauma (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Increases in mRNA levels for synapsin I but not synapsin II in the hippocampus of the rat kindling model of epilepsy. Morimoto, K., Sato, K., Sato, S., Suemaru, S., Sato, T., Yamada, N., Hayabara, T. Seizure : the journal of the British Epilepsy Association. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Efficient marking of neural stem cell-derived neurons with a modified murine embryonic stem cell virus, MESV2. Owens, G.C., Mistry, S., Edelman, G.M., Crossin, K.L. Gene Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Synapsin II. Mapping of a domain in the NH2-terminal region which binds to small synaptic vesicles. Thiel, G., Südhof, T.C., Greengard, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Endurance exercise regimens induce differential effects on brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synapsin-I and insulin-like growth factor I after focal ischemia. Ploughman, M., Granter-Button, S., Chernenko, G., Tucker, B.A., Mearow, K.M., Corbett, D. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids normalize BDNF levels, reduce oxidative damage, and counteract learning disability after traumatic brain injury in rats. Wu, A., Ying, Z., Gomez-Pinilla, F. J. Neurotrauma (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Synaptic vesicle-associated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a binding protein for synapsin I. Benfenati, F., Valtorta, F., Rubenstein, J.L., Gorelick, F.S., Greengard, P., Czernik, A.J. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Induction of formation of presynaptic terminals in neuroblastoma cells by synapsin IIb. Han, H.Q., Nichols, R.A., Rubin, M.R., Bähler, M., Greengard, P. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Aberrant neurites and synaptic vesicle protein deficiency in synapsin II-depleted neurons. Ferreira, A., Kosik, K.S., Greengard, P., Han, H.Q. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Synapsin dispersion and reclustering during synaptic activity. Chi, P., Greengard, P., Ryan, T.A. Nat. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of nefiracetam on the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and synapsin I mRNA and protein in the hippocampus of microsphere-embolized rats. Ando, T., Takagi, N., Takagi, K., Kago, T., Takeo, S. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Opiate receptor agonists regulate phosphorylation of synapsin I in cocultures of rat spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion. Nah, S.Y., Saya, D., Barg, J., Vogel, Z. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Microsphere embolism-induced changes in noradrenaline release in the cerebral cortex in rats. Hayashi, H., Sato, K., Kuruhara, Y., Takeo, S. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. An experimental study on the course of trans-synaptic propagation of neural activity and plasticity in the hippocampus in kainate-induced epilepsy. Sato, K., Abe, K. Brain Res. Bull. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Rabies virus entry into cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Lewis, P., Lentz, T.L. J. Neurocytol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Synapsin III, a novel synapsin with an unusual regulation by Ca2+. Hosaka, M., Südhof, T.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Extracellularly regulated kinases 1/2 (p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases) phosphorylate synapsin I and regulate insulin secretion in the MIN6 beta-cell line and islets of Langerhans. Longuet, C., Broca, C., Costes, S., Hani, e.l. .H., Bataille, D., Dalle, S. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Determination and analysis of the primary structure of the nerve terminal specific phosphoprotein, synapsin I. McCaffery, C.A., DeGennaro, L.J. EMBO J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Role of phospholipase D1 in neurite outgrowth of neural stem cells. Yoon, M.S., Yon, C., Park, S.Y., Oh, D.Y., Han, A.H., Kim, D.S., Han, J.S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Synaptic vesicle mobilization is regulated by distinct synapsin I phosphorylation pathways at different frequencies. Chi, P., Greengard, P., Ryan, T.A. Neuron (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Synapsins as mediators of BDNF-enhanced neurotransmitter release. Jovanovic, J.N., Czernik, A.J., Fienberg, A.A., Greengard, P., Sihra, T.S. Nat. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Tetramerization and ATP binding by a protein comprising the A, B, and C domains of rat synapsin I. Brautigam, C.A., Chelliah, Y., Deisenhofer, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. The upregulation of plasticity-related proteins following TBI is disrupted with acute voluntary exercise. Griesbach, G.S., Gomez-Pinilla, F., Hovda, D.A. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protects cultured rat hippocampal neurons from aluminum maltolate neurotoxicity. Kawahara, M., Kato-Negishi, M., Hosoda, R., Imamura, L., Tsuda, M., Kuroda, Y. J. Inorg. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. The interplay between oxidative stress and brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulates the outcome of a saturated fat diet on synaptic plasticity and cognition. Wu, A., Ying, Z., Gomez-Pinilla, F. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Synapsin I interacts with c-Src and stimulates its tyrosine kinase activity. Onofri, F., Giovedì, S., Vaccaro, P., Czernik, A.J., Valtorta, F., De Camilli, P., Greengard, P., Benfenati, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition during synaptic maturation decreases synapsin I immunoreactivity in rat brain. Sánchez-Islas, E., León-Olea, M. Nitric Oxide (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Voluntary exercise following traumatic brain injury: brain-derived neurotrophic factor upregulation and recovery of function. Griesbach, G.S., Hovda, D.A., Molteni, R., Wu, A., Gomez-Pinilla, F. Neuroscience (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. A calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase from mammalian brain that phosphorylates Synapsin I: partial purification and characterization. Kennedy, M.B., McGuinness, T., Greengard, P. J. Neurosci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  30. Quantification of neuromodulin (GAP-43, B-50) and synapsin I in rat striata. Iwata, S., Nomoto, M., Fukuda, T. Nihon shinkei seishin yakurigaku zasshi = Japanese journal of psychopharmacology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Distribution of Rab3a in rat nervous system: comparison with other synaptic vesicle proteins and neuropeptides. Li, J.Y., Jahn, R., Hou, X.E., Kling-Petersen, A., Dahlström, A. Brain Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Central neuronal synapse formation on micropatterned surfaces. Ma, W., Liu, Q.Y., Jung, D., Manos, P., Pancrazio, J.J., Schaffner, A.E., Barker, J.L., Stenger, D.A. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors inhibits synapsin I phosphorylation in visceral sensory neurons. Hay, M., Hoang, C.J., Hasser, E.M., Price, E.M. J. Membr. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Differential expression of synapsins I and II among rat retinal synapses. Mandell, J.W., Czernik, A.J., De Camilli, P., Greengard, P., Townes-Anderson, E. J. Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Covalent modification of synapsin I by a tetanus toxin-activated transglutaminase. Facchiano, F., Benfenati, F., Valtorta, F., Luini, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Protein phosphorylation and calcium uptake into rat forebrain synaptosomes: modulation by the sigma ligand, 1,3-ditolylguanidine. Brent, P.J., Herd, L., Saunders, H., Sim, A.T., Dunkley, P.R. J. Neurochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Exercise induces BDNF and synapsin I to specific hippocampal subfields. Vaynman, S., Ying, Z., Gómez-Pinilla, F. J. Neurosci. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Afferent input modulates neurotrophins and synaptic plasticity in the spinal cord. Gómez-Pinilla, F., Ying, Z., Roy, R.R., Hodgson, J., Edgerton, V.R. J. Neurophysiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Localization of synapsin-I and PSD-95 in developing postnatal rat cerebellar cortex. Castejón, O.J., Fuller, L., Dailey, M.E. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  40. Translocational changes of localization of synapsin in axonal sprouts of regenerating rat sciatic nerves after ligation crush injury. Kwon, K.B., Kim, J.S., Chang, B.J. J. Vet. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  41. Suppression of synapsin II inhibits the formation and maintenance of synapses in hippocampal culture. Ferreira, A., Han, H.Q., Greengard, P., Kosik, K.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  42. Development of synapsin I and synapsin II in intraocular hippocampal transplants. Bergman, H., Browning, M., Granholm, A.C. Hippocampus. (1992) [Pubmed]
  43. Differential distribution of synapsin IIa and IIb mRNAs in various brain structures and the effect of chronic morphine administration on the regional expression of these isoforms. Matus-Leibovitch, N., Nevo, I., Vogel, Z. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
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