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Gene Review

CXCL3  -  chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: C-X-C motif chemokine 3, CINC-2b, GRO-gamma, GRO-gamma(1-73), GRO3, ...
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Disease relevance of CXCL3

  • Expression of active human GRO beta and GRO gamma neutrophil chemotactic proteins in E. coli [1].
  • The study was carried out on 244 nasal samples collected mainly by practitioners of the GROG surveillance network during winter 1998-1999 for the detection of influenza A virus [2].
  • Our study was performed on clinical samples collected by practitioners of the GROG network (Groupe Régional d'Observation de la Grippe) in the south of France during the 2002-2003 influenza season [3].

High impact information on CXCL3

  • RESULTS: Expression of the neutrophil chemoattractants GRO-alpha, GRO-gamma, and interleukin 8 increased rapidly (2-3 hours) but transiently after infection or proinflammatory agonist stimulator [4].
  • A homology model of GRO gamma, constructed from the known structure of IL-8 by refinement calculations, indicated that access to the hydrophobic pocket was effectively abolished in GRO gamma [5].
  • The ricinoleoyl-CoA was an efficient acyl donor in the acylation of glycerol 3-phosphate (Gro3P) to yield phosphatidic acid and triacylglycerols [6].
  • In microsomal preparations incubated with an equimolar mixture of [14C]oleoyl-CoA and [14C]ricinoleoyl-CoA in the presence of Gro3P, only a minor amount of [14C]ricinoleate entered PtdCho, and this was believed to be via the exchange of phosphocholine groups between a diacylglycerol pool and the PtdCho [6].
  • In addition, cynomolgus macaque was found to contain an additional CXC chemokine highly homologous to CXCL3, termed CXCL3L (from CXCL3-like) [7].

Biological context of CXCL3


Anatomical context of CXCL3

  • ELISA analysis of CM from monocytes cultured on MG(FN-) revealed a significant decrease in GRO-alpha and GRO-gamma compared with CM from monocytes cultured on MG [12].
  • GRO-alpha, GRO-beta and GRO-gamma are closely related peptides that stimulate growth of tumor cells and activate leukocytes in acute inflammatory reactions [13].
  • GRO alpha expression was evaluated in the tumour specimens compared with normal, while there was constitutive expression of GRO gamma in both normal and neoplastic colonic mucosa [14].

Associations of CXCL3 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of CXCL3

  • No difference in CXCL2 and CXCL3 mRNA expression levels was observed [16].
  • We also identify a novel oxPAPC-induced chemokine, the CXC motif ligand 3 (CXCL3), and show that its expression requires XBP1 [17].
  • Here, 1,058 genes were differentially expressed, including many that were novel in this context (for example, CXCL3 and CXCL14) [18].
  • Specifically, at 100 ng/mL, the order was IL-8/CXCL8>GRO-alpha/CXCL1>GCP-2/CXCL6>NAP-2/CXCL7>ENA-78/CXCL5>GRO-gamma/CXCL2>GRO-beta/CXCL3 [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CXCL3


  1. Expression of active human GRO beta and GRO gamma neutrophil chemotactic proteins in E. coli. Zagorski, J., DeLarco, J.E. Protein Expr. Purif. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparison of three non-nested RT-PCR for the detection of influenza A viruses. Vabret, A., Sapin, G., Lezin, B., Mosnier, A., Cohen, J., Burnouf, L., Petitjean, J., Gouarin, S., Campet, M., Freymuth, F. J. Clin. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Sensitivity of influenza viruses to zanamivir and oseltamivir: a study performed on viruses circulating in France prior to the introduction of neuraminidase inhibitors in clinical practice. Ferraris, O., Kessler, N., Lina, B. Antiviral Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Differential and regulated expression of C-X-C, C-C, and C-chemokines by human colon epithelial cells. Yang, S.K., Eckmann, L., Panja, A., Kagnoff, M.F. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Receptor recognition and specificity of interleukin-8 is determined by residues that cluster near a surface-accessible hydrophobic pocket. Hammond, M.E., Shyamala, V., Siani, M.A., Gallegos, C.A., Feucht, P.H., Abbott, J., Lapointe, G.R., Moghadam, M., Khoja, H., Zakel, J., Tekamp-Olson, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Ricinoleic acid biosynthesis and triacylglycerol assembly in microsomal preparations from developing castor-bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm. Bafor, M., Smith, M.A., Jonsson, L., Stobart, K., Stymne, S. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of a Novel CXCL1-Like Chemokine Gene in Macaques and Its Inactivation in Hominids. Nomiyama, H., Otsuka-Ono, K., Miura, R., Osada, N., Terao, K., Yoshie, O., Kusuda, J. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of three related human GRO genes encoding cytokine functions. Haskill, S., Peace, A., Morris, J., Sporn, S.A., Anisowicz, A., Lee, S.W., Smith, T., Martin, G., Ralph, P., Sager, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Assignment of the mouse and cow CXC chemokine genes. Modi, W.S., Amarante, M.R., Hanson, M., Womack, J.E., Chidambaram, A. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. The interleukin-8-related chemotactic cytokines GRO alpha, GRO beta, and GRO gamma activate human neutrophil and basophil leukocytes. Geiser, T., Dewald, B., Ehrengruber, M.U., Clark-Lewis, I., Baggiolini, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. The innate immune system is activated by stimulation of vaginal epithelial cells with Staphylococcus aureus and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Peterson, M.L., Ault, K., Kremer, M.J., Klingelhutz, A.J., Davis, C.C., Squier, C.A., Schlievert, P.M. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Monocyte-fibronectin interactions, via alpha(5)beta(1) integrin, induce expression of CXC chemokine-dependent angiogenic activity. White, E.S., Livant, D.L., Markwart, S., Arenberg, D.A. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. A sensitive immunoassay to detect the alpha-chemokine GRO in rabbit blood and lung fluids. Kajikawa, O., Johnson, M.C., Goodman, R.B., Frevert, C.W., Martin, T.R. J. Immunol. Methods (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of GRO alpha, beta and gamma expression in human colonic tumours: potential significance of cytokine involvement. Cuenca, R.E., Azizkhan, R.G., Haskill, S. Surgical oncology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Phosphatidic acid, a key intermediate in lipid metabolism. Athenstaedt, K., Daum, G. Eur. J. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Constitutive expression of growth regulated oncogene (gro) in human colon carcinoma cells with different metastatic potential and its role in regulating their metastatic phenotype. Li, A., Varney, M.L., Singh, R.K. Clin. Exp. Metastasis (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. The unfolded protein response is an important regulator of inflammatory genes in endothelial cells. Gargalovic, P.S., Gharavi, N.M., Clark, M.J., Pagnon, J., Yang, W.P., He, A., Truong, A., Baruch-Oren, T., Berliner, J.A., Kirchgessner, T.G., Lusis, A.J. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of infliximab on mRNA expression profiles in synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Lindberg, J., af Klint, E., Catrina, A.I., Nilsson, P., Klareskog, L., Ulfgren, A.K., Lundeberg, J. Arthritis Res. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. The effects and comparative differences of neutrophil specific chemokines on neutrophil chemotaxis of the neonate. Fox, S.E., Lu, W., Maheshwari, A., Christensen, R.D., Calhoun, D.A. Cytokine (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. NF-kappa B mediates the stimulation of cytokine and chemokine expression by human articular chondrocytes in response to fibronectin fragments. Pulai, J.I., Chen, H., Im, H.J., Kumar, S., Hanning, C., Hegde, P.S., Loeser, R.F. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. The role of radiotherapy in the management of elderly cancer patients in light of the GROG experience. Ausili-Cefaro, G., Olmi, P. Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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