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Gene Review

Cxcl2  -  chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: C-X-C motif chemokine 2, CINC-3, Cinc3, Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 3, MIP2, ...
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Disease relevance of Cxcl2

  • In the present report, we describe recombinant production of CINC-2 alpha, CINC-2 beta and CINC-3 in Escherichia coli, and biological properties of these chemokines [1].
  • These data suggest a role for the nitric oxide pathway in the overproduction of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-6 and MIP-2 during GBS-induced lung inflammation [2].
  • These results indicate that CINCs, especially CINC-1 and CINC-3 play an important role in the recruitment of neutrophils to the lung in LPS-induced acute lung injury [3].
  • GRO chemokine mRNAs were rapidly expressed in inflamed glomeruli during immune complex glomerulonephritis with MIP-2 predominating over CINC [4].
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether Chlamydophila pneumoniae (I) alters the expression of TLR2 and/orTLR4 in type II cells in a (II) Rho-GTPase- and (III) NF-kappaB-dependent pathway, subsequently (IV) leading to the production of (IV) pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha and MIP-2 [5].

High impact information on Cxcl2


Chemical compound and disease context of Cxcl2


Biological context of Cxcl2


Anatomical context of Cxcl2


Associations of Cxcl2 with chemical compounds

  • These effects were transient as rmIL-1beta-stimulated AT II cell secretions of interleukin-6 and MIP-2 progressively reached control values between 4 and 24 h after the end of halothane exposure [20].
  • Pentoxifylline inhibited the indomethacin-induced gastric injury with reduction of neutrophil infiltration and expression of chemokine (MCP-1, MIP-2, and CINC-2alpha) [19].
  • Addition of L-arginine (L-arg) reversed the AG effect on IL-6 and MIP-2 expression [2].
  • Further, dietary glycine largely prevented increases in IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in the colon 2 days after TNBS, and TNBS induction of CINC and MIP-2 in the colonic tissue also was abrogated by glycine [21].
  • Moreover, inhibition of IL-1b-induced endogenous NO formation by the NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NMMA markedly attenuated MIP-2 protein expression [9].

Regulatory relationships of Cxcl2

  • However, MCP-1 inhibition persisted until 24 h. rmIL-1beta-induced MIP-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression were decreased by 36 and 24%, respectively, after halothane exposure [20].
  • CINC-3 induced enhancement of cytoplasmic calcium concentration more potently than CINC-1 and CINC-2, and desensitized calcium transients induced by CINC-1 and CINC-2, which were essentially identical to those observed in rat neutrophils [22].
  • A study was performed to determine whether IL-1 beta could induce the expression of MIP-2 in the lungs of Brown-Norway rats [23].
  • Finally, IL-1beta but not IFN-gamma or IL-4 enhanced MIP-2 mRNA levels [24].
  • TNF-alpha also induced MIP-2 production from alveolar epithelial cells [25].

Other interactions of Cxcl2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cxcl2

  • Finally, by in situ hybridization techniques, PMN in the lung tissue, particularly those located in the vicinity of the bronchiole and vasculature, were demonstrated to localize MIP-2 mRNA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[28]
  • Instillation of recombinant MIP-2 or CINC into the lung increased the number of neutrophils recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 4 h, and this effect was enhanced when both chemokines were administered together [17].
  • MIP-2 transcription increased on PAD 12, while in autografts, its expression was not markedly different from that detected in the contralateral, non-grafted peripheral cornea [29].
  • The biotin-streptavidin sandwich ELISA for CINC-2 beta detected CINC-2 alpha and CINC- 2 beta equally well between 1 ug/mI and 300 ng/ml, but did not show cross-reactivity with CINC-1 and CINC-3 [30].
  • The levels of CINC-1, CINC-2alpha and CINC-3 in BAL fluids were significantly higher in the LPS group than in the saline-instilled control group [3].


  1. Recombinant production and biological properties of rat cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractants, GRO/CINC-2 alpha, CINC-2 beta and CINC-3. Shibata, F., Konishi, K., Kato, H., Komorita, N., al-Mokdad, M., Fujioka, M., Nakagawa, H. Eur. J. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Nitric oxide-dependent regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in group B streptococcal inflammation of rat lung. Raykova, V.D., Glibetic, M., Ofenstein, J.P., Aranda, J.V. Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury. Yamasawa, H., Ishii, Y., Kitamura, S. Inflammation (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. GRO chemokines: a transduction, integration, and amplification mechanism in acute renal inflammation. Wu, X., Dolecki, G.J., Lefkowith, J.B. Am. J. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Chlamydophila pneumoniae induces expression of toll-like receptor 4 and release of TNF-alpha and MIP-2 via an NF-kappaB pathway in rat type II pneumocytes. Wissel, H., Schulz, C., Koehne, P., Richter, E., Maass, M., Rüdiger, M. Respir. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Roles of TH1 and TH2 cytokines in a murine model of allergic dermatitis. Spergel, J.M., Mizoguchi, E., Oettgen, H., Bhan, A.K., Geha, R.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Injurious ventilatory strategies increase cytokines and c-fos m-RNA expression in an isolated rat lung model. Tremblay, L., Valenza, F., Ribeiro, S.P., Li, J., Slutsky, A.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Modulation of neutrophil influx in glomerulonephritis in the rat with anti-macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) antibody. Feng, L., Xia, Y., Yoshimura, T., Wilson, C.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Nitric oxide induces MIP-2 transcription in rat renal mesangial cells and in a rat model of glomerulonephritis. Walpen, S., Beck, K.F., Schaefer, L., Raslik, I., Eberhardt, W., Schaefer, R.M., Pfeilschifter, J. FASEB J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 production is inhibited by taurine chloramine in rat C6 glioma cells. Liu, Y., Schuller-Levis, G., Quinn, M.R. Immunol. Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. The female intestine is more resistant than the male intestine to gut injury and inflammation when subjected to conditions associated with shock states. Homma, H., Hoy, E., Xu, D.Z., Lu, Q., Feinman, R., Deitch, E.A. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of systemic and local CXC chemokine administration on the ethanol-induced suppression of pulmonary neutrophil recruitment. Quinton, L.J., Nelson, S., Zhang, P., Happel, K.I., Gamble, L., Bagby, G.J. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Change in location of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractants (CINCs) in pulmonary silicosis. Hata, J., Aoki, K., Mitsuhashi, H., Uno, H. Exp. Mol. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractants (CINC), rat GRO/CINC-2 alpha and CINC-2 beta, produced by granulation tissue in culture: purification, complete amino acid sequences and characterization. Nakagawa, H., Komorita, N., Shibata, F., Ikesue, A., Konishi, K., Fujioka, M., Kato, H. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Alveolar epithelial cells secrete chemokines in response to IL-1beta and lipopolysaccharide but not to ozone. Manzer, R., Wang, J., Nishina, K., McConville, G., Mason, R.J. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Chemokine expression in nerve allografts. Midha, R., Munro, C.A., Ramakrishna, V., Matsuyama, T., Gorczynski, R.M. Neurosurgery (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Selective transport of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant from the lung to the blood facilitates pulmonary neutrophil recruitment. Quinton, L.J., Nelson, S., Zhang, P., Boé, D.M., Happel, K.I., Pan, W., Bagby, G.J. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Time course of gene expression of inflammatory mediators in rat lung after diesel exhaust particle exposure. Rao, K.M., Ma, J.Y., Meighan, T., Barger, M.W., Pack, D., Vallyathan, V. Environ. Health Perspect. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 regulates leukocyte recruitment during gastric ulcer recurrence induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Watanabe, T., Higuchi, K., Hamaguchi, M., Shiba, M., Tominaga, K., Fujiwara, Y., Matsumoto, T., Arakawa, T. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Halogenated anesthetics reduce interleukin-1beta-induced cytokine secretion by rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. Giraud, O., Molliex, S., Rolland, C., Leçon-Malas, V., Desmonts, J.M., Aubier, M., Dehoux, M. Anesthesiology (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Dietary glycine prevents chemical-induced experimental colitis in the rat. Tsune, I., Ikejima, K., Hirose, M., Yoshikawa, M., Enomoto, N., Takei, Y., Sato, N. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Identification of a common receptor for three types of rat cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractants (CINCs). Shibata, F., Konishi, K., Nakagawa, H. Cytokine (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Induction of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 gene expression by interleukin 1 beta in rat lung. Xu, W.B., Haddad, E.B., Tsukagoshi, H., Adcock, I., Barnes, P.J., Chung, K.F. Thorax (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Interleukin-4 and IFN-gamma differentially stimulate macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and eotaxin production by intestinal epithelial cells. Winsor, G.L., Waterhouse, C.C., MacLellan, R.L., Stadnyk, A.W. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage inflammatory protein-2 release from alveolar epithelial cells. Autoregulation in host defense. Xavier, A.M., Isowa, N., Cai, L., Dziak, E., Opas, M., McRitchie, D.I., Slutsky, A.S., Keshavjee, S.H., Liu, M. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Role of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2 (CINC-2) alpha in a rat model of chronic bronchopulmonary infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Amano, H., Oishi, K., Sonoda, F., Senba, M., Wada, A., Nakagawa, H., Nagatake, T. Cytokine (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. CXC chemokines and their receptors are expressed in type II cells and upregulated following lung injury. Vanderbilt, J.N., Mager, E.M., Allen, L., Sawa, T., Wiener-Kronish, J., Gonzalez, R., Dobbs, L.G. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Cytokine expression by neutrophils and macrophages in vivo: endotoxin induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6 but not RANTES or transforming growth factor-beta 1 mRNA expression in acute lung inflammation. Xing, Z., Jordana, M., Kirpalani, H., Driscoll, K.E., Schall, T.J., Gauldie, J. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Cytokine mRNA expression during experimental corneal allograft rejection. Torres, P.F., De Vos, A.F., van der Gaag, R., Martins, B., Kijlstra, A. Exp. Eye Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Differential changes in the concentrations of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 and CINC-2 in exudate during rat lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Shibata, F., Kato, H., Konishi, K., Okumora, A., Ochiai, H., Nakajima, K., Al-Mokdad, M., Nakagawa, H. Cytokine (1996) [Pubmed]
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