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Gene Review

GYG1  -  glycogenin 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: GN-1, GN1, GSD15, GYG, Glycogenin-1
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Disease relevance of GYG1


High impact information on GYG1

  • The conserved motif in the Cl- channel P1 region may constitute a 'signature' sequence for an anion-selective ion pore by analogy with the homologous GYG sequence that is essential for selectivity in voltage-gated potassium ion (K+) channel pores [3].
  • The same tyrosine residue is glycosylated whether glycogenin is isolated as a complex with the catalytic subunit of glycogen synthase, or covalently attached to glycogen [4].
  • It is suggested that glycogen oscillates, according to glucose supply and energy demand, between the macroglycogen and proglycogen, but not usually the glycogenin, forms [5].
  • Glycogenin has the ability to glucosylate molecules other than itself and to hydrolyze UDPglucose [5].
  • The discovery of glycogenin as a self-glucosylating protein that primes glycogen synthesis has significantly increased our understanding of the structure and metabolism of this storage polysaccharide [5].

Biological context of GYG1


Anatomical context of GYG1


Associations of GYG1 with chemical compounds

  • Analysis of peptide fragments by mass spectroscopy indicated that the recombinant glycogenin was already glucosylated at Tyr-194 and contained from 1 to 8 glucose residues attached [1].
  • Characterization of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogenin. Tyrosine 194 is essential for function [1].
  • Kinetically controlled incubation of FA and the tripeptide Gly-Tyr-Gly (GYG) with horseradish peroxidase and H2O2 yielded a range of new cross-linked products [12].
  • In Shaker-group potassium channels the presence of a tyrosine residue, just downstream of the pore signature sequence GYG, determines sensitivity to tetraethylammonium (TEA) [13].
  • While there is no evidence that CDP-glucose is a natural substrate for glycogenin, it has the advantage over UDP-glucose in that it can be used specifically to detect and assay glycogenin in the presence of glycogen synthase because CDP-glucose, unlike UDP-glucose, is not a substrate for the synthase [14].

Physical interactions of GYG1


Other interactions of GYG1

  • GNIP, a novel protein that binds and activates glycogenin, the self-glucosylating initiator of glycogen biosynthesis [6].
  • Over regions of protein sequence similarity, the GYG2 gene structure is similar to that of the other glycogenin gene, GYG [16].
  • By means of the polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we have found the chromosomal location of the gene coding for glycogenin [8].
  • The exercise-diet manipulation exerted a significant effect on transcription of all carbohydrate-related genes, with an increase in GLUT4 and glycogenin mRNA abundance and a reduction in PDK-4 transcription after HIGH-CHO (all P < 0.05) [17].
  • In conclusion, the co-expression of glycogenin with GLUT3 might enable glycogen-storing cells to exchange glucose quite effectively according to prevailing metabolic demands of glycogen synthesis or degradation [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GYG1


  1. Characterization of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogenin. Tyrosine 194 is essential for function. Cao, Y., Mahrenholz, A.M., DePaoli-Roach, A.A., Roach, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. The role of glycogenin in glycogen synthesis and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Bailey, J.M., Lomako, J.P., Lomkako, W., Whelan, W.J. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Pore-forming segments in voltage-gated chloride channels. Fahlke, C., Yu, H.T., Beck, C.L., Rhodes, T.H., George, A.L. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Isolation and structural analysis of a peptide containing the novel tyrosyl-glucose linkage in glycogenin. Smythe, C., Caudwell, F.B., Ferguson, M., Cohen, P. EMBO J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. A new look at the biogenesis of glycogen. Alonso, M.D., Lomako, J., Lomako, W.M., Whelan, W.J. FASEB J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. GNIP, a novel protein that binds and activates glycogenin, the self-glucosylating initiator of glycogen biosynthesis. Skurat, A.V., Dietrich, A.D., Zhai, L., Roach, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Glycogenin-2, a novel self-glucosylating protein involved in liver glycogen biosynthesis. Mu, J., Skurat, A.V., Roach, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. The human intron-containing gene for glycogenin maps to chromosome 3, band q24. Lomako, J., Mazuruk, K., Lomako, W.M., Alonso, M.D., Whelan, W.J., Rodriguez, I.R. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Do rodents have a gene encoding glycogenin-2, the liver isoform of the self-glucosylating initiator of glycogen synthesis? Zhai, L., Schroeder, J., Skurat, A.V., Roach, P.J. IUBMB Life (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization of the human glycogenin-1 gene: identification of a muscle-specific regulatory domain. van Maanen, M.H., Fournier, P.A., Palmer, T.N., Abraham, L.J. Gene (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. From maternal glucose to fetal glycogen: expression of key regulators in the human placenta. Hahn, D., Blaschitz, A., Korgun, E.T., Lang, I., Desoye, G., Skofitsch, G., Dohr, G. Mol. Hum. Reprod. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oligomerization of ferulic acid on a template of a tyrosine-containing tripeptide. Oudgenoeg, G., Dirksen, E., Ingemann, S., Hilhorst, R., Gruppen, H., Boeriu, C.G., Piersma, S.R., van Berkel, W.J., Laane, C., Voragen, A.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Differential tetraethylammonium sensitivity of KCNQ1-4 potassium channels. Hadley, J.K., Noda, M., Selyanko, A.A., Wood, I.C., Abogadie, F.C., Brown, D.A. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. New and specific nucleoside diphosphate glucose substrates for glycogenin. Alonso, M.D., Lagzdins, E.J., Lomako, J., Lomako, W.M., Whelan, W.J. FEBS Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of human glycogenin-2, a self-glucosylating initiator of liver glycogen metabolism. Mu, J., Roach, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Structure and chromosomal localization of the human glycogenin-2 gene GYG2. Zhai, L., Mu, J., Zong, H., DePaoli-Roach, A.A., Roach, P.J. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Regulation of metabolic genes in human skeletal muscle by short-term exercise and diet manipulation. Arkinstall, M.J., Tunstall, R.J., Cameron-Smith, D., Hawley, J.A. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Increases in glycogenin and glycogenin mRNA accompany glycogen resynthesis in human skeletal muscle. Shearer, J., Wilson, R.J., Battram, D.S., Richter, E.A., Robinson, D.L., Bakovic, M., Graham, T.E. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Measurement of glycogenin utilization for glycogen synthesis in type II diabetic cells by use of a specific immunoassay for APO-glycogenin. Bailey, J.M., Lillehoj, E.P., Sidawy, A.N., Jones, B., Cohen, J.L. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (1995) [Pubmed]
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