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Chemical Compound Review

Potassium(+)     potassium(+1) cation

Synonyms: potassium ion, potassium(1+), Potassium (1+), Potassium (K+), CHEBI:29103, ...
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Disease relevance of POTASSIUM

  • Addition of saline-adenine-glucose solutions (40 to 100 ml per blood unit) to buffy-coat-poor red-cell concentrates allowed storage for as long as 35 days with 24-hour erythrocyte post-transfusion survival of 83 +/- 6.8 per cent (+/0 S.D.). Potassium leakage was lower, and in vitro hemolysis somewhat higher than that of whole blood [1].
  • BACKGROUND: The efflux of potassium (K) through the ATP-sensitive K channel is considered an important cause of the rise in extracellular K ([K+]e) during no-flow ischemia [2].
  • To study myocardial metabolism in chronic hypoxia due to cyanotic congenital heart disease, coronary arteriovenous differences of lactate (L), pyruvate (P), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and potassium (K) were measured in 14 cyanotic patients and seven controls, at rest and during atrial pacing [3].
  • Familial pseudohyperkalemia is a "leaky red blood cell" condition in which the cells show a temperature-dependent loss of potassium (K) from red blood cells when stored at room temperature, manifesting as apparent hyperkalemia [4].
  • The transient potassium (K+) current, or A-current (IA), plays an essential role in shaping the firing properties of identified neurons in the 14-cell pyloric network in the stomatogastric ganglion of the spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus [5].

Psychiatry related information on POTASSIUM


High impact information on POTASSIUM

  • The Drosophila Shaker (Sh) gene appears to encode a type of voltage-sensitive potassium (K+) channel called the A channel [8].
  • Depletion of intracellular potassium (K+) caused a marked reduction in the rate of endocytosis of receptor-bound low density lipoprotein (LDL) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in human fibroblasts [9].
  • The conserved motif in the Cl- channel P1 region may constitute a 'signature' sequence for an anion-selective ion pore by analogy with the homologous GYG sequence that is essential for selectivity in voltage-gated potassium ion (K+) channel pores [10].
  • We demonstrate here that secretion of catecholamines evoked from the rat adrenal gland by stimulation of splanchnic nerves, excess potassium (K+) and nicotine is facilitated by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate [11].
  • Repolarization of the action potential in squid axon1 and several types of neurones2-4 involves a voltage-activated potassium (K+) current [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of POTASSIUM


Biological context of POTASSIUM


Anatomical context of POTASSIUM

  • Both serotonin and the selective gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) agonist, baclofen, increase potassium (K+) conductance in hippocampal pyramidal cells [22].
  • The role of apical and basolateral membranes in aldosterone-induced active potassium (K) secretion in rat distal colon was investigated by measuring mucosal-to-serosal (Jms) and serosal-to-mucosal (Jsm) 42K fluxes ( across isolated stripped mucosa under short-circuit conditions in normal and secondary-hyperaldosterone animals [23].
  • We have confirmed that phytohemagglutinin (PHA) rapidly enhances the uptake of potassium (K+) by human blood lymphocytes [24].
  • The primary effect of AII is activation of phospholipase C, which increases both calcium release from intracellular stores and calcium flux across the cell membrane and activates protein kinase C. Potassium depolarizes the membrane, thereby activating calcium flow through voltage-dependent calcium channels [25].
  • Potassium ion influx and Na+,K+-ATPase activity are required for the hamster sperm acrosome reaction [26].

Associations of POTASSIUM with other chemical compounds


Gene context of POTASSIUM

  • Mutations in the KCNQ1 gene, which encodes the cardiac KvLQT1 potassium ion (K+) channel, cause both the autosomal dominant Romano-Ward (RW) syndrome and the recessive Jervell and Lange-Nielsen (JLN) syndrome [32].
  • To date, two voltage-gated potassium (K+) channel genes, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, have been identified in typical BNFC families [33].
  • Isolation, mapping, and sequencing of trapped exons and captured cDNAs from cosmids of this region have revealed the presence of a gene (KCNJ15) encoding a potassium (K+) channel belonging to the family of inward rectifier K+ (Kir) channels [34].
  • Two neurological mutants deafwaddler (dfw) and opisthotonos (opt) and a cluster of three Shaker-like potassium (K) channel genes Kcna1, Kcna5, and Kcna6 were all independently mapped to distal mouse chromosome six (Chr 6) [35].
  • OBJECTIVE: Potassium (K(+)) channels on immune cells have gained attention recently as promising targets of therapy for immune-mediated neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of POTASSIUM


  1. Clinical usefulness of red cells preserved in protein-poor mediums. Högman, C.F., Hedlund, K., Zetterström, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Unanticipated lessening of the rise in extracellular potassium during ischemia by pinacidil. Kanda, A., Watanabe, I., Williams, M.L., Engle, C.L., Li, S., Koch, G.G., Gettes, L.S. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Myocardial metabolism in cyanotic congenital heart disease studied by arteriovenous differences of lactate, phosphate, and potassium at rest and during atrial pacing. Friedli, B., Haenni, B., Moret, P., Opie, L.H. Circulation (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Familial pseudohyperkalemia maps to the same locus as dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (hereditary xerocytosis). Iolascon, A., Stewart, G.W., Ajetunmobi, J.F., Perrotta, S., Delaunay, J., Carella, M., Zelante, L., Gasparini, P. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Lobster shal: comparison with Drosophila shal and native potassium currents in identified neurons. Baro, D.J., Coniglio, L.M., Cole, C.L., Rodriguez, H.E., Lubell, J.K., Kim, M.T., Harris-Warrick, R.M. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Restoration of TEA-induced calcium responses in fibroblasts from Alzheimer's disease patients by a PKC activator. Bhagavan, S., Ibarreta, D., Ma, D., Kozikowski, A.P., Etcheberrigaray, R. Neurobiol. Dis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Potassium deposition during and after hypokinesia in potassium supplemented and unsupplemented rats. Zorbas, Y.G., Kakuris, K.K., Charapakhin, K.P., Afoninos, A.B. International journal of medical sciences [electronic resource]. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular characterization of Shaker, a Drosophila gene that encodes a potassium channel. Kamb, A., Iverson, L.E., Tanouye, M.A. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Depletion of intracellular potassium arrests coated pit formation and receptor-mediated endocytosis in fibroblasts. Larkin, J.M., Brown, M.S., Goldstein, J.L., Anderson, R.G. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Pore-forming segments in voltage-gated chloride channels. Fahlke, C., Yu, H.T., Beck, C.L., Rhodes, T.H., George, A.L. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Phorbol ester facilitates 45Ca accumulation and catecholamine secretion by nicotine and excess K+ but not by muscarine in rat adrenal medulla. Wakade, A.R., Malhotra, R.K., Wakade, T.D. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Action potential repolarization may involve a transient, Ca2+-sensitive outward current in a vertebrate neurone. MacDermott, A.B., Weight, F.F. Nature (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Epidermal growth factor in breast cyst fluid: relationship with intracystic cation and androgen conjugate content. Boccardo, F., Valenti, G., Zanardi, S., Cerruti, G., Fassio, T., Bruzzi, P., De Franchis, V., Barreca, A., Del Monte, P., Minuto, F. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Refractory potassium repletion due to cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Rodriguez, M., Solanki, D.L., Whang, R. Arch. Intern. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Cardioprotection by opening of the K(ATP) channel in unstable angina. Is this a clinical manifestation of myocardial preconditioning? Results of a randomized study with nicorandil. CESAR 2 investigation. Clinical European studies in angina and revascularization. Patel, D.J., Purcell, H.J., Fox, K.M. Eur. Heart J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Diazepam prevents some adverse effects of succinylcholine. Fahmy, N.R., Malek, N.S., Lappas, D.G. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. Long-term combined treatment with thiazide and potassium citrate in nephrolithiasis does not lead to hypokalemia or hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Odvina, C.V., Preminger, G.M., Lindberg, J.S., Moe, O.W., Pak, C.Y. Kidney Int. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Specification of pore properties by the carboxyl terminus of inwardly rectifying K+ channels. Taglialatela, M., Wible, B.A., Caporaso, R., Brown, A.M. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Histidine Phosphorylation of the Potassium Channel KCa3.1 by Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase B Is Required for Activation of KCa3.1 and CD4 T Cells. Srivastava, S., Li, Z., Ko, K., Choudhury, P., Albaqumi, M., Johnson, A.K., Yan, Y., Backer, J.M., Unutmaz, D., Coetzee, W.A., Skolnik, E.Y. Mol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. The central nervous system in potassium homeostasis. Rabinowitz, L., Aizman, R.I. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. The S4 voltage sensor packs against the pore domain in the KAT1 voltage-gated potassium channel. Lai, H.C., Grabe, M., Jan, Y.N., Jan, L.Y. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. A G protein couples serotonin and GABAB receptors to the same channels in hippocampus. Andrade, R., Malenka, R.C., Nicoll, R.A. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Characterization of aldosterone-induced potassium secretion in rat distal colon. Sweiry, J.H., Binder, H.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Potasssium transport in human blood lymphocytes treated with phytohemagglutinin. Segel, G.B., Lichtman, M.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. Regulation of aldosterone secretion. Quinn, S.J., Williams, G.H. Annu. Rev. Physiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Potassium ion influx and Na+,K+-ATPase activity are required for the hamster sperm acrosome reaction. Mrsny, R.J., Meizel, S. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. Differential subunit composition of the G protein-activated inward-rectifier potassium channel during cardiac development. Fleischmann, B.K., Duan, Y., Fan, Y., Schoneberg, T., Ehlich, A., Lenka, N., Viatchenko-Karpinski, S., Pott, L., Hescheler, J., Fakler, B. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Low substrate affinity of pyruvate kinase variant (PK Sapporo) caused by a single amino acid substitution (426 Arg-->Gln) associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia. Kanno, H., Fujii, H., Miwa, S. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Selective increase of potassium permeability in red blood cells exposed to acetylphenylhydrazine. Orringer, E.P., Parker, J.C. Blood (1977) [Pubmed]
  30. The role of CED-3-related cysteine proteases in apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells. Eldadah, B.A., Yakovlev, A.G., Faden, A.I. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Tyrosine Phosphatases {varepsilon} and {alpha} Perform Specific and Overlapping Functions in Regulation of Voltage-gated Potassium Channels in Schwann Cells. Tiran, Z., Peretz, A., Sines, T., Shinder, V., Sap, J., Attali, B., Elson, A. Mol. Biol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Mutations in a dominant-negative isoform correlate with phenotype in inherited cardiac arrhythmias. Mohammad-Panah, R., Demolombe, S., Neyroud, N., Guicheney, P., Kyndt, F., van den Hoff, M., Baró, I., Escande, D. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Complete loss of the cytoplasmic carboxyl terminus of the KCNQ2 potassium channel: a novel mutation in a large Czech pedigree with benign neonatal convulsions or other epileptic phenotypes. Pereira, S., Roll, P., Krizova, J., Genton, P., Brazdil, M., Kuba, R., Cau, P., Rektor, I., Szepetowski, P. Epilepsia (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. A new inward rectifier potassium channel gene (KCNJ15) localized on chromosome 21 in the Down syndrome chromosome region 1 (DCR1). Gosset, P., Ghezala, G.A., Korn, B., Yaspo, M.L., Poutska, A., Lehrach, H., Sinet, P.M., Créau, N. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Molecular genetic analysis of distal mouse chromosome 6 defines gene order and positions of the deafwaddler and opisthotonos mutations. Street, V.A., Robinson, L.C., Erford, S.K., Tempel, B.L. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Potassium channels Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 are expressed on blood-derived dendritic cells in the central nervous system. Mullen, K.M., Rozycka, M., Rus, H., Hu, L., Cudrici, C., Zafranskaia, E., Pennington, M.W., Johns, D.C., Judge, S.I., Calabresi, P.A. Ann. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. Potassium ion depletion filter for blood transfusion. Inaba, S., Shirahama, N. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. Potassium channels mediate killing by human natural killer cells. Schlichter, L., Sidell, N., Hagiwara, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  39. Changes in extracellular potassium activity in response to decreased pH in rabbit atrial muscle. Skinner, R.B., Kunze, D.L. Circ. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  40. The dissociation of renin and aldosterone during critical illness. Findling, J.W., Waters, V.O., Raff, H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1987) [Pubmed]
  41. A population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis and model validation of azimilide. Phillips, L., Grasela, T.H., Agnew, J.R., Ludwig, E.A., Thompson, G.A. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
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