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Gene Review

HOXA13  -  homeobox A13

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: HOX1, HOX1J, Homeobox protein Hox-1J, Homeobox protein Hox-A13
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Disease relevance of HOXA13


High impact information on HOXA13

  • A nonsense mutation in the homeobox of HOXA13 has been identified in one affected family, making HFGS the second human syndrome shown to be caused by a HOX gene mutation [5].
  • Polyalanine expansion in HOXA13: three new affected families and the molecular consequences in a mouse model [6].
  • Polyalanine expansions in two of three large imperfect trinucleotide repeats encoded by the first exon of HOXA13 have been reported in hand-foot-genital syndrome (HFGS) [6].
  • The chromosomal breakpoints on 7p15 were located within introns of HOXA11 or HOXA13 genes [7].
  • We now report that six different genes of the cluster HOX 1 are sequentially induced by RA in a similar temporal pattern, beginning with genes at the 3' end of the cluster [8].

Biological context of HOXA13

  • The HOXA13 gene is part of the HOXA cluster genes and contains 2 exons, encoding a protein of 338 amino acids with a homeodomain [9].
  • Thus far, however, mutations have been documented in only three of the 39 human HOX genes (HOXD13, HOXA13, and HOXA11) partly because current knowledge on the complete coding sequence and genome structure is limited to only 20 of the 39 human HOX genes [10].
  • Finally, using mammalian one-hybrid assay, we show that transcriptional activation by a GAL4/Smad3-C-terminus fusion protein is specifically inhibited by HOXA13 [11].
  • A HOXA13 allele with a missense mutation in the homeobox and a dinucleotide deletion in the promoter underlies Guttmacher syndrome [12].
  • We have therefore re-investigated the original Guttmacher syndrome family, and have found that affected individuals are heterozygous for a novel missense mutation in the HOXA13 homeobox (c.1112A>T; homeodomain residue Q50L), which arose on an allele already carrying a novel 2-bp deletion (-78-79delGC) in the gene's highly conserved promoter region [12].

Anatomical context of HOXA13


Associations of HOXA13 with chemical compounds

  • A novel stable polyalanine [poly(A)] expansion in the HOXA13 gene associated with hand-foot-genital syndrome: proper function of poly(A)-harbouring transcription factors depends on a critical repeat length [16]?
  • HOX-1 mRNA levels were found to be maximally induced after 6h of treatment with 200muM H(2)O(2) and remained elevated for at least 24h [17].

Other interactions of HOXA13

  • We report here a novel NUP98 partner gene, HOXA13, in a patient with de novo AML having t(7;11)(p15;p15) [9].
  • In this report we discuss what is known about HOXA13 and HOXD13 function during GU development, highlighting some of the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlled by these proteins during the GU formation [18].
  • Cells transduced with TLX3 or HOXA13 could not be detected in the peripheral blood of mice post-transplantation and none of the mice developed malignancies [3].
  • Molecular characterization of the 7p15 breakpoint showed that this was localized within a fully sequenced PAC clone RP1-170O19 containing the HOXA4 to HOXA13 genes and the EVX1 gene [19].
  • RESULTS: shh, BMP4, Hoxa13, and Hoxd13 transcripts were detected in all samples, confirming that shh cascade is active during the process of hindgut development in fetal rats [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HOXA13

  • In affected individuals from both families, sequence analysis of candidate gene HOXA13 did not identify a mutation, and there was no evidence of a microdeletion involving either HOXA13 or the HOXA cluster as a whole [21].
  • Using whole-mount in situ hybridization, we localized Hoxa13 expression to the cervical and vaginal tissues, consistent with the observed defects [22].


  1. Exclusion of WTAP and HOXA13 as candidate genes for isolated hypospadias. Utsch, B., Kaya, A., Ozburun, A., Lentze, M.J., Albers, N., Ludwig, M. Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Monodactylous limbs and abnormal genitalia are associated with hemizygosity for the human 2q31 region that includes the HOXD cluster. Del Campo, M., Jones, M.C., Veraksa, A.N., Curry, C.J., Jones, K.L., Mascarello, J.T., Ali-Kahn-Catts, Z., Drumheller, T., McGinnis, W. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Transforming potential of the T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia-associated homeobox genes HOXA13, TLX1, and TLX3. Su, X., Drabkin, H., Clappier, E., Morgado, E., Busson, M., Romana, S., Soulier, J., Berger, R., Bernard, O.A., Lavau, C. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of the Hoxa-13 gene correlates to hepatitis B and C virus associated HCC. Huang, T., Chesnokov, V., Yokoyama, K.K., Carr, B.I., Itakura, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Novel HOXA13 mutations and the phenotypic spectrum of hand-foot-genital syndrome. Goodman, F.R., Bacchelli, C., Brady, A.F., Brueton, L.A., Fryns, J.P., Mortlock, D.P., Innis, J.W., Holmes, L.B., Donnenfeld, A.E., Feingold, M., Beemer, F.A., Hennekam, R.C., Scambler, P.J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Polyalanine expansion in HOXA13: three new affected families and the molecular consequences in a mouse model. Innis, J.W., Mortlock, D., Chen, Z., Ludwig, M., Williams, M.E., Williams, T.M., Doyle, C.D., Shao, Z., Glynn, M., Mikulic, D., Lehmann, K., Mundlos, S., Utsch, B. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Single-translocation and double-chimeric transcripts: detection of NUP98-HOXA9 in myeloid leukemias with HOXA11 or HOXA13 breaks of the chromosomal translocation t(7;11)(p15;p15). Fujino, T., Suzuki, A., Ito, Y., Ohyashiki, K., Hatano, Y., Miura, I., Nakamura, T. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Alteration of homeobox gene expression by N-ras transformation of PA-1 human teratocarcinoma cells. Buettner, R., Yim, S.O., Hong, Y.S., Boncinelli, E., Tainsky, M.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. The chromosome translocation t(7;11)(p15;p15) in acute myeloid leukemia results in fusion of the NUP98 gene with a HOXA cluster gene, HOXA13, but not HOXA9. Taketani, T., Taki, T., Ono, R., Kobayashi, Y., Ida, K., Hayashi, Y. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Complete mutation analysis panel of the 39 human HOX genes. Kosaki, K., Kosaki, R., Suzuki, T., Yoshihashi, H., Takahashi, T., Sasaki, K., Tomita, M., McGinnis, W., Matsuo, N. Teratology (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Group 13 HOX proteins interact with the MH2 domain of R-Smads and modulate Smad transcriptional activation functions independent of HOX DNA-binding capability. Williams, T.M., Williams, M.E., Heaton, J.H., Gelehrter, T.D., Innis, J.W. Nucleic Acids Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. A HOXA13 allele with a missense mutation in the homeobox and a dinucleotide deletion in the promoter underlies Guttmacher syndrome. Innis, J.W., Goodman, F.R., Bacchelli, C., Williams, T.M., Mortlock, D.P., Sateesh, P., Scambler, P.J., McKinnon, W., Guttmacher, A.E. Hum. Mutat. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Role of HOXA7 to HOXA13 and PBX1 genes in various forms of MRKH syndrome (congenital absence of uterus and vagina). Burel, A., Mouchel, T., Odent, S., Tiker, F., Knebelmann, B., Pellerin, I., Guerrier, D. Journal of negative results in biomedicine [electronic resource]. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Tail gut endoderm and gut/genitourinary/tail development: a new tissue-specific role for Hoxa13. de Santa Barbara, P., Roberts, D.J. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Coordinated expression of Hoxa-11 and Hoxa-13 during limb muscle patterning. Yamamoto, M., Gotoh, Y., Tamura, K., Tanaka, M., Kawakami, A., Ide, H., Kuroiwa, A. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. A novel stable polyalanine [poly(A)] expansion in the HOXA13 gene associated with hand-foot-genital syndrome: proper function of poly(A)-harbouring transcription factors depends on a critical repeat length? Utsch, B., Becker, K., Brock, D., Lentze, M.J., Bidlingmaier, F., Ludwig, M. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Involvement of JNKs and p38-MAPK/MSK1 pathways in H(2)O(2)-induced upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 mRNA in H9c2 cells. Aggeli, I.K., Gaitanaki, C., Beis, I. Cell. Signal. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Genitourinary functions of Hoxa13 and Hoxd13. Scott, V., Morgan, E.A., Stadler, H.S. J. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. HOXA gene cluster rearrangement in a t(7;9)(p15;q34) in a child with MDS. Poppe, B., Yigit, N., De Moerloose, B., De Paepe, A., Benoit, Y., Speleman, F. Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Sonic hedgehog, BMP4, and Hox genes in the development of anorectal malformations in Ethylenethiourea-exposed fetal rats. Mandhan, P., Quan, Q.B., Beasley, S., Sullivan, M. J. Pediatr. Surg. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Autosomal dominant B-cell immunodeficiency, distal limb anomalies and urogenital malformations (BILU syndrome) - report of a second family. Tischkowitz, M., Goodman, F., Koliou, M., Webster, D., Edery, P., Jones, A., Wilson, L.C. Clin. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Infertility in adult hypodactyly mice is associated with hypoplasia of distal reproductive structures. Post, L.C., Innis, J.W. Biol. Reprod. (1999) [Pubmed]
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