The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Germ Layers

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Germ Layers

  • Tse-1 was active in nonhepatic cell lines derived from each primary germ layer, but Tse-1 activity was not apparent in hybrids between hepatoma cells and primary mouse hepatocytes [1].
  • Pluripotent mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells have been extensively used as a developmental model system because they can differentiate in the presence of retinoic acid (RA) into derivatives of all three germ layers depending on RA dosage and culture conditions [2].
  • Further characterization of the goosecoid-overexpressing ES cells revealed that they maintain the expression of stage-specific embryonic antigen-1, and teratomas derived from goosecoid-overexpressing cells show the presence of cell types derived from all three germ layers [3].

High impact information on Germ Layers


Biological context of Germ Layers

  • Strong homologies extend over the entire 6 kb of the ftz upstream region with the best match in the 'upstream element'. We identified several highly conserved boxes embedded in unrelated sequences that correspond extremely well to two germ layer specific enhancers in the upstream element [9].
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans and sea urchins, canonical Notch signaling is essential for different cell fate specifications during early embryogenesis or the formation of endoderm, mesoderm, or ectoderm germ layers [10].
  • Homozygotes continued to develop for 2-3 more days, reaching the size of a normal 8.5 day embryo, and formed tissues representative of all three germ layers, including several differentiated cell types [11].
  • The homeobox gene goosecoid (gsc) and the winged-helix gene Hepatic Nuclear Factor-3beta (HNF-3beta) are co-expressed in all three germ layers in the anterior primitive streak and at the rostral end of mouse embryos during gastrulation [12].
  • Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrates that Bcl-2 is widely expressed early in mouse fetal development in tissues derived from all three germ layers and that this expression becomes restricted with maturation [13].

Anatomical context of Germ Layers

  • These studies establish that Htl signaling provides a vital connection between initial formation of the embryonic mesoderm in Drosophila and subsequent cell-fate specification within this germ layer [14].
  • The coincidence of E-cadherin expression with the process of gastrulation and its restriction to the ectoderm indicate that it may play a role in the morphogenetic movements of gastrulation and resulting segregation of embryonic germ layers [15].
  • Although VHL mRNA was expressed in all three germ layers, strong expression was noted in the central nervous system, kidneys, testis and lung [16].
  • As the primitive streak forms, Otx2 expression is restricted to the anterior parts of all three germ layers [17].
  • During development, CCN3 is expressed widely in derivatives of all three germ layers, and high levels of expression are observed in smooth muscle cells of the arterial vessel wall [18].

Associations of Germ Layers with chemical compounds

  • To identify how RA signals to pancreatic progenitors in the endoderm, we have developed a novel cell transplantation technique, using the ability of the SOX32 transcription factor to confer endodermal identity, to selectively target reagents to (or exclude them from) the endodermal germ layer of the zebrafish [19].
  • XLFB3 is not expressed in the rostral part of all three germ layers, with coincident anterior borders that are shifted anteriorly by treatment of developing embryos with retinoic acid [20].
  • In addition, a range of morphological defects in other germ layers is seen, and cell movement is adversely affected by methanol exposure [21].
  • Using histochemical methods the authors studied the effect of ACTH and cortisone on carbohydrate-protein complexes of epithelial cells derived from 3 different germ layers [22].
  • Isolated explants from axolotl early gastrulae show three types of behaviour in terms of glycoprotein synthesis, corresponding to the classical germ layers [23].

Gene context of Germ Layers

  • Loss of Frem2 function results in defects in developmental events associated with morphogenetic rearrangements of the vasculature and of tissues arising from all germ layers [24].
  • Homozygous mutant embryos derived from eggs lacking Pofut1 gene transcripts developed indistinguishably from the wild type until approximately embryonic day 8.0, a postgastrulation stage after the formation of the three germ layers [10].
  • Mesodermal expression of dpp is required for the expression of lab in these endodermal cells indicating that dpp mediates an inductive interaction between the two germ layers [25].
  • The combination of an ectoderm-specific regulatory mutation in the Hoxb1 locus and the Hoxa1 mutant genetic background results in an ectoderm-specific double mutation, leaving the other germ layers impaired only in Hoxa1 function [26].
  • Two of the three mouse Cdx paralogues, Cdx 1 and Cdx2, are expressed early in a Hox-like manner in the three germ layers [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Germ Layers


  1. Differential activity of a tissue-specific extinguisher locus in hepatic and nonhepatic cells. Gourdeau, H., Peterson, T.C., Fournier, R.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Efficient cloning of cDNAs of retinoic acid-responsive genes in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells and characterization of a novel mouse gene, Stra1 (mouse LERK-2/Eplg2). Bouillet, P., Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Vicaire, S., Garnier, J.M., Schuhbaur, B., Dollé, P., Chambon, P. Dev. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. goosecoid expression represses Brachyury in embryonic stem cells and affects craniofacial development in chimeric mice. Boucher, D.M., Schäffer, M., Deissler, K., Moore, C.A., Gold, J.D., Burdsal, C.A., Meneses, J.J., Pedersen, R.A., Blum, M. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Apc modulates embryonic stem-cell differentiation by controlling the dosage of beta-catenin signaling. Kielman, M.F., Rindapää, M., Gaspar, C., van Poppel, N., Breukel, C., van Leeuwen, S., Taketo, M.M., Roberts, S., Smits, R., Fodde, R. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Smad2 signaling in extraembryonic tissues determines anterior-posterior polarity of the early mouse embryo. Waldrip, W.R., Bikoff, E.K., Hoodless, P.A., Wrana, J.L., Robertson, E.J. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. The role of maternal VegT in establishing the primary germ layers in Xenopus embryos. Zhang, J., Houston, D.W., King, M.L., Payne, C., Wylie, C., Heasman, J. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Differential regulation of Ultrabithorax in two germ layers of Drosophila. Bienz, M., Saari, G., Tremml, G., Müller, J., Züst, B., Lawrence, P.A. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Sp1/egr-like zinc-finger protein required for endoderm specification and germ-layer formation in Drosophila. Brönner, G., Chu-LaGraff, Q., Doe, C.Q., Cohen, B., Weigel, D., Taubert, H., Jäckle, H. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of the segmentation gene fushi tarazu has been functionally conserved in Drosophila. Maier, D., Preiss, A., Powell, J.R. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Canonical Notch signaling is dispensable for early cell fate specifications in mammals. Shi, S., Stahl, M., Lu, L., Stanley, P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. H beta 58, an insertional mutation affecting early postimplantation development of the mouse embryo. Radice, G., Lee, J.J., Costantini, F. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Goosecoid and HNF-3beta genetically interact to regulate neural tube patterning during mouse embryogenesis. Filosa, S., Rivera-Pérez, J.A., Gómez, A.P., Gansmuller, A., Sasaki, H., Behringer, R.R., Ang, S.L. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Bcl-2 protein expression during murine development. Novack, D.V., Korsmeyer, S.J. Am. J. Pathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. heartless encodes a fibroblast growth factor receptor (DFR1/DFGF-R2) involved in the directional migration of early mesodermal cells in the Drosophila embryo. Gisselbrecht, S., Skeath, J.B., Doe, C.Q., Michelson, A.M. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin in Xenopus embryos begins at gastrulation and predominates in the ectoderm. Choi, Y.S., Gumbiner, B. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of the von Hippel-Lindau disease tumour suppressor gene during human embryogenesis. Richards, F.M., Schofield, P.N., Fleming, S., Maher, E.R. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Functional equivalency between Otx2 and Otx1 in development of the rostral head. Suda, Y., Nakabayashi, J., Matsuo, I., Aizawa, S. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. CCN3 (NOV) is a novel angiogenic regulator of the CCN protein family. Lin, C.G., Leu, S.J., Chen, N., Tebeau, C.M., Lin, S.X., Yeung, C.Y., Lau, L.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Retinoids signal directly to zebrafish endoderm to specify insulin-expressing beta-cells. Stafford, D., White, R.J., Kinkel, M.D., Linville, A., Schilling, T.F., Prince, V.E. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Cloning and developmental expression of LFB3/HNF1 beta transcription factor in Xenopus laevis. Demartis, A., Maffei, M., Vignali, R., Barsacchi, G., De Simone, V. Mech. Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Methanol exposure interferes with morphological cell movements in the Drosophila embryo and causes increased apoptosis in the CNS. Mellerick, D.M., Liu, H. J. Neurobiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. The effect of ACTH and cortisone on the carbohydrate-protein complexes of different types of epithelium in relation to their embryological origin. Kozlowska, K., Kostulak, A. Acta Histochem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. Regional specificity of glycoconjugates in Xenopus and axolotl embryos. Slack, J.M., Cleine, J.H., Smith, J.C. Journal of embryology and experimental morphology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Tissue morphogenesis and vascular stability require the Frem2 protein, product of the mouse myelencephalic blebs gene. Timmer, J.R., Mak, T.W., Manova, K., Anderson, K.V., Niswander, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. A Drosophila growth factor homolog, decapentaplegic, regulates homeotic gene expression within and across germ layers during midgut morphogenesis. Panganiban, G.E., Reuter, R., Scott, M.P., Hoffmann, F.M. Development (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Synergy between Hoxa1 and Hoxb1: the relationship between arch patterning and the generation of cranial neural crest. Gavalas, A., Trainor, P., Ariza-McNaughton, L., Krumlauf, R. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Cdx1 and Cdx2 have overlapping functions in anteroposterior patterning and posterior axis elongation. van den Akker, E., Forlani, S., Chawengsaksophak, K., de Graaff, W., Beck, F., Meyer, B.I., Deschamps, J. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. The expression of B-cadherin during embryonic chick development. Murphy-Erdosh, C., Napolitano, E.W., Reichardt, L.F. Dev. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression of TGF-beta s and their receptors during implantation and organogenesis of the mouse embryo. Roelen, B.A., Lin, H.Y., Knezević, V., Freund, E., Mummery, C.L. Dev. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Developmental ontogeny of prolactin and prolactin receptor in the sea bream (Sparus aurata). Santos, C.R., Cavaco, J.E., Ingleton, P.M., Power, D.M. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Evolutionary origins of Notch signaling in early development. Shi, S., Stanley, P. Cell Cycle (2006) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities