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Gene Review

betaTub56D  -  beta-Tubulin at 56D

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 1t, A1ZBL0_DROME, B1t, BETA 56D, Beta-1-tubulin, ...
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Disease relevance of betaTub56D

  • The transient expression of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) regulates the transcription of a variety of growth-control genes, including c-fos, c-myc, and the gene for transforming growth factor beta 1 via discrete promoter sequences termed retinoblastoma control elements (RCE) [1].

Psychiatry related information on betaTub56D

  • The polarity of kinesin's motor activity can be reversed by MT disassembly and interactions between a motor and a MT end can either slow or speed the rate of tubulin depolymerization [2].

High impact information on betaTub56D

  • The expression of beta 3-tubulin is accompanied by a coordinate transient increase in the level of synthesis of the embryonic alpha-tubulins, thereby maintaining an approximately equimolar synthesis of alpha- and beta-tubulin subunits throughout embryogenesis [3].
  • Both the polymerization and depolymerization of tubulin have been shown to do work in vitro, but the biochemical complexity of objects moved, such as chromosomes, has complicated the identification of proteins that couple MT dynamics with motility [2].
  • In addition, the ability of ectopic Vein to induce the expression of Delilah and beta1 tubulin depends on the presence of functional Egfrs [4].
  • In loss-of-function vein mutant embryos, muscle-dependent differentiation of tendon cells, measured by the level of expression of specific markers (Delilah and beta1 tubulin) is blocked [4].
  • Despite high levels of expression of these exogenous MAPs and the bundling of microtubules in cells expressing tau, transfected cells had normal levels of assembled and unassembled tubulin [5].

Biological context of betaTub56D


Anatomical context of betaTub56D


Associations of betaTub56D with chemical compounds

  • The antiserum is specific for beta 1 subunits and does not recognize other integrin beta subunits in humans [13].

Regulatory relationships of betaTub56D


Other interactions of betaTub56D


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of betaTub56D


  1. Functional interactions between the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and Sp-family members: superactivation by Rb requires amino acids necessary for growth suppression. Udvadia, A.J., Templeton, D.J., Horowitz, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Minus-end-directed motion of kinesin-coated microspheres driven by microtubule depolymerization. Lombillo, V.A., Stewart, R.J., McIntosh, J.R. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of tubulin gene expression during embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Raff, E.C., Fuller, M.T., Kaufman, T.C., Kemphues, K.J., Rudolph, J.E., Raff, R.A. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. The Drosophila neuregulin homolog Vein mediates inductive interactions between myotubes and their epidermal attachment cells. Yarnitzky, T., Min, L., Volk, T. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Stable expression of heterologous microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in Chinese hamster ovary cells: evidence for differing roles of MAPs in microtubule organization. Barlow, S., Gonzalez-Garay, M.L., West, R.R., Olmsted, J.B., Cabral, F. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Two types of genetic interaction implicate the whirligig gene of Drosophila melanogaster in microtubule organization in the flagellar axoneme. Green, L.L., Wolf, N., McDonald, K.L., Fuller, M.T. Genetics (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Testis-specific beta 2 tubulins are identical in Drosophila melanogaster and D. hydei but differ from the ubiquitous beta 1 tubulin. Michiels, F., Falkenburg, D., Müller, A.M., Hinz, U., Otto, U., Bellmann, R., Glätzer, K.H., Brand, R., Bialojan, S., Renkawitz-Pohl, R. Chromosoma (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. A yeast gene encoding a protein homologous to the human c-has/bas proto-oncogene product. Gallwitz, D., Donath, C., Sander, C. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Sodium channel beta subunits mediate homophilic cell adhesion and recruit ankyrin to points of cell-cell contact. Malhotra, J.D., Kazen-Gillespie, K., Hortsch, M., Isom, L.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Conserved axoneme symmetry altered by a component beta-tubulin. Raff, E.C., Hutchens, J.A., Hoyle, H.D., Nielsen, M.G., Turner, F.R. Curr. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Transcription of the beta 1 tubulin (beta Tub56D) gene in apodemes is strictly dependent on muscle insertion during embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Buttgereit, D. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Muscle development and attachment to the epidermis is accompanied by expression of beta 3 and beta 1 tubulin isotypes, respectively. Buttgereit, D., Paululat, A., Renkawitz-Pohl, R. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Antibodies to the conserved cytoplasmic domain of the integrin beta 1 subunit react with proteins in vertebrates, invertebrates, and fungi. Marcantonio, E.E., Hynes, R.O. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Sub-cellular Ca(2+) dynamics affected by voltage- and Ca(2+)-gated K(+) channels: Regulation of the soma-growth cone disparity and the quiescent state in Drosophila neurons. Berke, B.A., Lee, J., Peng, I.F., Wu, C.F. Neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. The roles of PDZ-containing proteins in PLC-beta-mediated signaling. Suh, P.G., Hwang, J.I., Ryu, S.H., Donowitz, M., Kim, J.H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Redundant enhancer elements guide beta 1 tubulin gene expression in apodemes during Drosophila embryogenesis. Buttgereit, D. J. Cell. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. The expression of beta 1 and beta 3 tubulin genes of Drosophila melanogaster is spatially regulated during embryogenesis. Gasch, A., Hinz, U., Leiss, D., Renkawitz-Pohl, R. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Enlarged scale chemical synthesis and range of activity of drosocin, an O-glycosylated antibacterial peptide of Drosophila. Bulet, P., Urge, L., Ohresser, S., Hetru, C., Otvos, L. Eur. J. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Requirement for the betaI and betaIV tubulin isotypes in mammalian cilia. Jensen-Smith, H.C., Ludueña, R.F., Hallworth, R. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Demarcation of early mammalian cortical development by differential expression of fringe genes. Ishii, Y., Nakamura, S., Osumi, N. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Molecular characterization of Drosophila NELF. Wu, C.H., Lee, C., Fan, R., Smith, M.J., Yamaguchi, Y., Handa, H., Gilmour, D.S. Nucleic Acids Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
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