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Gene Review

betaTub60D  -  beta-Tubulin at 60D

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 143391_i_at, 3t, B3t, BETA 60D, Beta-3-tubulin, ...
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Disease relevance of betaTub60D

  • This model system implicates the cellular T antigen-binding proteins, such as Rb and p53, in the pathogenesis of bone and soft tissue neoplasms in mice [1].

Psychiatry related information on betaTub60D

  • The polarity of kinesin's motor activity can be reversed by MT disassembly and interactions between a motor and a MT end can either slow or speed the rate of tubulin depolymerization [2].

High impact information on betaTub60D


Biological context of betaTub60D


Anatomical context of betaTub60D

  • Our data support the hypothesis that beta3 confers specialized properties on the microtubules into which it is incorporated [7].
  • The separability of elements driving beta 3-tubulin expression in the somatic and visceral mesoderm facilitates the investigation of the different programs involved in regulating the early differentiation of this germ layer [8].
  • We show that expression of the beta 3-tubulin gene in the somatic muscles, the pharyngeal muscles, and the dorsal vessel is mediated by far upstream sequences [8].
  • A lethal complementation group comprising mutations in the beta 3-tubulin gene (beta Tub60D) was identified by rescue of their lethality by a wild-type copy of the gene introduced into the genome via P element-mediated germ line transformation [11].
  • Thus transient zygotic beta3 expression has permanent consequences for the architecture of the cap cell microtubule cytoskeleton in the larval sensilla, even when beta3 is no longer present [12].

Associations of betaTub60D with chemical compounds

  • Intron and upstream sequences regulate expression of the Drosophila beta 3-tubulin gene in the visceral and somatic musculature, respectively [8].
  • Expression of a new beta tubulin subunit is induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone in Drosophila cultured cells [13].
  • The expression of the beta 3 tubulin gene is regulated, at the transcriptional level, by the steroid hormone ecdysone, in Drosophila Kc cells [14].
  • We have used negative-stain electron microscopy and image analysis to study the structures of microtubules and tubulin sheets decorated with the motor domain (head) of kinesin in three states: in the presence of an unhydrolysable ATP analogue, 5'-adenylylimidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP); without nucleotides; and with adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) [15].
  • Each tubulin monomer binds a guanine nucleotide, which is nonexchangeable when it is bound in the alpha subunit, or N site, and exchangeable when bound in the beta subunit, or E site [16].

Physical interactions of betaTub60D


Regulatory relationships of betaTub60D


Other interactions of betaTub60D


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of betaTub60D


  1. Smooth muscle and bone neoplasms in transgenic mice expressing SV40 T antigen. Wilkie, T.M., Schmidt, R.A., Baetscher, M., Messing, A. Oncogene (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Minus-end-directed motion of kinesin-coated microspheres driven by microtubule depolymerization. Lombillo, V.A., Stewart, R.J., McIntosh, J.R. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Molecular biology and genetics of tubulin. Cleveland, D.W., Sullivan, K.F. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. A role for the Drosophila neurogenic genes in mesoderm differentiation. Corbin, V., Michelson, A.M., Abmayr, S.M., Neel, V., Alcamo, E., Maniatis, T., Young, M.W. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of tubulin gene expression during embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Raff, E.C., Fuller, M.T., Kaufman, T.C., Kemphues, K.J., Rudolph, J.E., Raff, R.A. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. A dispersed multigene family encoding tubulin in Drosophila melanogaster. Sánchez, F., Natzle, J.E., Cleveland, D.W., Kirschner, M.W., McCarthy, B.J. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. A transient specialization of the microtubule cytoskeleton is required for differentiation of the Drosophila visual system. Hoyle, H.D., Turner, F.R., Raff, E.C. Dev. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Intron and upstream sequences regulate expression of the Drosophila beta 3-tubulin gene in the visceral and somatic musculature, respectively. Gasch, A., Hinz, U., Renkawitz-Pohl, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Three Drosophila beta-tubulin sequences: a developmentally regulated isoform (beta 3), the testis-specific isoform (beta 2), and an assembly-defective mutation of the testis-specific isoform (B2t8) reveal both an ancient divergence in metazoan isotypes and structural constraints for beta-tubulin function. Rudolph, J.E., Kimble, M., Hoyle, H.D., Subler, M.A., Raff, E.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Ultrabithorax is a regulator of beta 3 tubulin expression in the Drosophila visceral mesoderm. Hinz, U., Wolk, A., Renkawitz-Pohl, R. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. The beta 3-tubulin gene of Drosophila melanogaster is essential for viability and fertility. Kimble, M., Dettman, R.W., Raff, E.C. Genetics (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Embryonic expression of the divergent Drosophila beta3-tubulin isoform is required for larval behavior. Dettman, R.W., Turner, F.R., Hoyle, H.D., Raff, E.C. Genetics (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression of a new beta tubulin subunit is induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone in Drosophila cultured cells. Sobrier, M.L., Couderc, J.L., Chapel, S., Dastugue, B. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Intronic and 5' flanking sequences of the Drosophila beta 3 tubulin gene are essential to confer ecdysone responsiveness. Bruhat, A., Dréau, D., Drake, M.E., Tourmente, S., Chapel, S., Couderc, J.L., Dastugue, B. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Nucleotide-dependent angular change in kinesin motor domain bound to tubulin. Hirose, K., Lockhart, A., Cross, R.A., Amos, L.A. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Structure of the alpha beta tubulin dimer by electron crystallography. Nogales, E., Wolf, S.G., Downing, K.H. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. The roles of PDZ-containing proteins in PLC-beta-mediated signaling. Suh, P.G., Hwang, J.I., Ryu, S.H., Donowitz, M., Kim, J.H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. beta3-tubulin is directly repressed by the engrailed protein in Drosophila. Serrano, N., Brock, H.W., Maschat, F. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Tinman regulates the transcription of the beta3 tubulin gene (betaTub60D) in the dorsal vessel of Drosophila. Kremser, T., Gajewski, K., Schulz, R.A., Renkawitz-Pohl, R. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Structurally similar Drosophila alpha-tubulins are functionally distinct in vivo. Hutchens, J.A., Hoyle, H.D., Turner, F.R., Raff, E.C. Mol. Biol. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Redundant enhancer elements guide beta 1 tubulin gene expression in apodemes during Drosophila embryogenesis. Buttgereit, D. J. Cell. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Three-dimensional structure of a tubulin-motor-protein complex. Hoenger, A., Sablin, E.P., Vale, R.D., Fletterick, R.J., Milligan, R.A. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Mutation in a structural gene for a beta-tubulin specific to testis in Drosophila melanogaster. Kemphues, K.J., Raff, R.A., Kaufman, T.C., Raff, E.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  24. TPPP/p25 promotes tubulin assemblies and blocks mitotic spindle formation. Tirián, L., Hlavanda, E., Oláh, J., Horváth, I., Orosz, F., Szabó, B., Kovács, J., Szabad, J., Ovádi, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
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