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Gene Review

mys  -  myospheroid

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: BetaPS, BetaPS-Int, CG1560, CT40473, Dmel\CG1560, ...
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Psychiatry related information on mys


High impact information on mys

  • Myogenesis and Z-bands were defective in myospheroid embryos [3].
  • This change failed to occur in the multinucleate myotubes derived from integrin beta PS null myospheroid mutants [3].
  • The function of PS integrins during Drosophila embryogenesis [4].
  • In wild-type embryos, PS antigens are found at the interface between mesoderm and ectoderm, and later mainly at the attachment sites of muscles to the epidermis and gut [4].
  • Here we report the results of a genetic analysis indicating that both of the PS integrins are required to maintain the close apposition of the dorsal and ventral wing epithelia during morphogenesis [5].

Biological context of mys

  • Dorsal herniation, characteristic of the mys lethal phenotype, is not observed in mew or in mew if embryos [6].
  • Mutant mew embryos display abnormal gut morphogenesis but, unlike mys or if embryos, there is no evidence of defects in the somatic muscles [6].
  • Furthermore, our studies demonstrate that mutant proteins affecting four highly conserved amino acid residues in the cytoplasmic tail function with different efficiencies during embryonic development, suggesting that interaction of PS integrins with cytoplasmic ligands is developmentally modulated during embryogenesis [7].
  • We have rescued the wing blister phenotype of double mutants for the hypomorphic mysnj42 and if3 alleles using a heat shock-inducible mys+ transgene [8].
  • The role of apterous in the control of dorsoventral compartmentalization and PS integrin gene expression in the developing wing of Drosophila [9].

Anatomical context of mys

  • A role for PS integrins in morphological growth and synaptic function at the postembryonic neuromuscular junction of Drosophila [10].
  • PS integrins appear at postembryonic NMJs coincident with the onset of rapid morphological growth and terminal type-specific differentiation, and are restricted to type I synaptic boutons, which mediate fast, excitatory glutamatergic transmission [10].
  • The position-specific (PS) integrins of Drosophila are a family of cell surface heterodimers that function as receptors for extracellular matrix molecules [11].
  • In this paper, it is shown that the PS integrins are required at the muscle attachment sites of the Drosophila embryo to regulate tendon cell differentiation [12].
  • As a first step in this analysis, we demonstrated the ability of a fragment of wild-type mys genomic DNA, introduced into the germ line in a P-element vector P[mys+], to rescue phenotypes attributed to lack of (or defects in) the endogenous beta PS during several discrete morphogenetic events [13].

Associations of mys with chemical compounds

  • Removal of both maternal and zygotic betaPS produced similar defects, indicating that these two integrin subunits associate in vivo and function in the movement and morphogenesis of tissues during development in Drosophila [14].
  • We show that the PS antigens are related multimeric glycoprotein complexes on the cell surface [15].
  • Binding was decreased in the presence of EDTA or RGD peptides and by mutation of the TWOW-1 RGD sequence or the betaPS metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) motif [16].

Physical interactions of mys


Regulatory relationships of mys

  • Consistent with its expression, removal of betanu only enhanced the phenotype of betaPS in the developing midgut [18].
  • Furthermore, clonal analysis shows that loss of Dlar or mys influences actin filament polarity in wild-type cells that surround mutant tissues, suggesting that communication between neighboring cells regulates cytoskeletal organization [19].

Other interactions of mys

  • In contrast to if (alpha PS2) and mys (beta PS) mutants, most mutant mew embryos hatch, to die as larvae [6].
  • Requirements for the cytoplasmic domain of the alphaPS1, alphaPS2 and betaPS integrin subunits during Drosophila development [7].
  • These studies demonstrate that betaPS integrins act through CaMKII activation to control the localization of synaptic proteins involved in the development of NMJ synaptic morphology [20].
  • Regulatory betaPS integrin mutations increase the expression and synaptic localization of FAS2 [20].
  • Finally, we show that Sog diffusion into provein regions and the reticular pattern of extracellular Sog distribution in wild-type wings requires mys and mew function [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of mys

  • Tiggrin-coated surfaces support primary embryo cell culture and provide excellent substrates for alpha PS2 beta PS integrin-mediated cell spreading [22].
  • The delayed functional senescence and altered mortality in myospheroid flies are independent of changes in body size, reproduction or stress resistance [1].
  • The distributions of three position-specific (PS) antigens have been examined in different Drosophila tissues and at various developmental times, using both immunofluorescence and affinity purification procedures [23].
  • Here we report evidence from PCR amplification for three novel beta integrin subunits that are expressed during early development of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus [24].
  • For the mysXN101 mutation, protein product is seen on immunoblots and a reduced amount of beta PS protein is seen at muscle attachment sites of embryos; this mutant protein retains some wild-type function, as revealed by complementation tests with weak alleles [25].


  1. Delayed behavioural aging and altered mortality in Drosophila beta integrin mutants. Goddeeris, M.M., Cook-Wiens, E., Horton, W.J., Wolf, H., Stoltzfus, J.R., Borrusch, M., Grotewiel, M.S. Aging Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Behavioral responses to odorants in drosophila require nervous system expression of the beta integrin gene myospheroid. Bhandari, P., Gargano, J.W., Goddeeris, M.M., Grotewiel, M.S. Chem. Senses (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. A role for integrin in the formation of sarcomeric cytoarchitecture. Volk, T., Fessler, L.I., Fessler, J.H. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. The function of PS integrins during Drosophila embryogenesis. Leptin, M., Bogaert, T., Lehmann, R., Wilcox, M. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Requirement for integrins during Drosophila wing development. Brower, D.L., Jaffe, S.M. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Nonequivalent requirements for PS1 and PS2 integrin at cell attachments in Drosophila: genetic analysis of the alpha PS1 integrin subunit. Brower, D.L., Bunch, T.A., Mukai, L., Adamson, T.E., Wehrli, M., Lam, S., Friedlander, E., Roote, C.E., Zusman, S. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Requirements for the cytoplasmic domain of the alphaPS1, alphaPS2 and betaPS integrin subunits during Drosophila development. Li, X., Graner, M.W., Williams, E.L., Roote, C.E., Bunch, T.A., Zusman, S. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. PS2 integrin requirements in Drosophila embryo and wing morphogenesis. Brabant, M.C., Brower, D.L. Dev. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. The role of apterous in the control of dorsoventral compartmentalization and PS integrin gene expression in the developing wing of Drosophila. Blair, S.S., Brower, D.L., Thomas, J.B., Zavortink, M. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. A role for PS integrins in morphological growth and synaptic function at the postembryonic neuromuscular junction of Drosophila. Beumer, K.J., Rohrbough, J., Prokop, A., Broadie, K. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Functions for PS integrins in tissue adhesion, migration, and shape changes during early embryonic development in Drosophila. Roote, C.E., Zusman, S. Dev. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Integrins modulate the Egfr signaling pathway to regulate tendon cell differentiation in the Drosophila embryo. Martin-Bermudo, M.D. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Functions of the cytoplasmic domain of the beta PS integrin subunit during Drosophila development. Grinblat, Y., Zusman, S., Yee, G., Hynes, R.O., Kafatos, F.C. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. A novel alpha integrin subunit associates with betaPS and functions in tissue morphogenesis and movement during Drosophila development. Stark, K.A., Yee, G.H., Roote, C.E., Williams, E.L., Zusman, S., Hynes, R.O. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. The Drosophila position-specific antigens are a family of cell surface glycoprotein complexes. Wilcox, M., Brown, N., Piovant, M., Smith, R.J., White, R.A. EMBO J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Amino acid changes in Drosophila alphaPS2betaPS integrins that affect ligand affinity. Bunch, T.A., Helsten, T.L., Kendall, T.L., Shirahatti, N., Mahadevan, D., Shattil, S.J., Brower, D.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Focal adhesion kinase controls morphogenesis of the Drosophila optic stalk. Murakami, S., Umetsu, D., Maeyama, Y., Sato, M., Yoshida, S., Tabata, T. Development (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. Morphogenesis in the absence of integrins: mutation of both Drosophila beta subunits prevents midgut migration. Devenport, D., Brown, N.H. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. The receptor tyrosine phosphatase Dlar and integrins organize actin filaments in the Drosophila follicular epithelium. Bateman, J., Reddy, R.S., Saito, H., Van Vactor, D. Curr. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Integrins regulate DLG/FAS2 via a CaM kinase II-dependent pathway to mediate synapse elaboration and stabilization during postembryonic development. Beumer, K., Matthies, H.J., Bradshaw, A., Broadie, K. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Integrins modulate Sog activity in the Drosophila wing. Araujo, H., Negreiros, E., Bier, E. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Tiggrin, a novel Drosophila extracellular matrix protein that functions as a ligand for Drosophila alpha PS2 beta PS integrins. Fogerty, F.J., Fessler, L.I., Bunch, T.A., Yaron, Y., Parker, C.G., Nelson, R.E., Brower, D.L., Gullberg, D., Fessler, J.H. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Developmental analysis of Drosophila position-specific antigens. Brower, D.L., Piovant, M., Reger, L.A. Dev. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Cloning and characterization of novel beta integrin subunits from a sea urchin. Marsden, M., Burke, R.D. Dev. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Characterization of mutant alleles of myospheroid, the gene encoding the beta subunit of the Drosophila PS integrins. Bunch, T.A., Salatino, R., Engelsgjerd, M.C., Mukai, L., West, R.F., Brower, D.L. Genetics (1992) [Pubmed]
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