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Gene Review

TUB2  -  beta-tubulin

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: ARM10, Beta-tubulin, SHE8, Tubulin beta chain, YFL037W
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Disease relevance of TUB2

  • Truncation of the carboxy-terminal domain of yeast beta-tubulin causes temperature-sensitive growth and hypersensitivity to antimitotic drugs [1].
  • All of the observed regulation of levels of tubulin can be explained as a response to toxicity associated with excess tubulin proteins, especially if beta-tubulin is much more toxic than alpha-tubulin [2].
  • Further comparisons between the P. carinii beta-tubulin and those of fungal beta-tubulins resistant to benomyl, a beta-tubulin-binding drug, indicate a difference which may be exploited in the development of a new drug therapy for P. carinii pneumonitis [3].
  • Starting with 7.7 mg of a beta-tubulin isolated from myxamoebae of the slime mould Physarum polycephalum, 90% of the sequence has been determined by the Edman degradation of peptides generated by cyanogen bromide, trypsin and Staphylococcus aureus protease [4].
  • Furthermore, we calculated the correlation coefficients for the cu patterns of the helminth beta-tubulin sequences compared with those of highly expressed genes in organisms such as Escherichia coli and C. elegans [5].

High impact information on TUB2


Biological context of TUB2

  • We have identified a protein, BAF1, which has two oppositely oriented, partially overlapping binding sites within a symmetrical sequence located midway between and upstream of the divergently transcribed YPT1 and TUB2 genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae [10].
  • The symmetrical sequence of the YPT1/TUB2 intergene region seems not to be involved in DNA replication but activates transcription in an orientation-independent fashion [10].
  • Overexpression of beta-tubulin (TUB2) was lethal: cells arrested in the G2 stage of the cell cycle exhibited an increased frequency of chromosome loss, were devoid of microtubules, and accumulated beta-tubulin in a novel structure [11].
  • Impaired core promoter recognition caused by novel yeast TAF145 mutations can be restored by creating a canonical TATA element within the promoter region of the TUB2 gene [12].
  • To identify sequences which rendered transcription yTAF145 dependent, we conducted deletion analysis of the TUB2 promoter using a novel mini-CLN2 hybrid gene reporter system [12].

Anatomical context of TUB2

  • Despite the essential function of Ppp4c-R2 in microtubule-related processes at centrosomes in higher eukaryotes, S. cerevisiae diploid strains with homozygous deletion of YBL046w and two or one functional copies of the TUB2 gene were viable and no more sensitive to microtubule-depolymerizing drugs than the control strain [13].
  • Pac10 null cells show a 30% decrease in the ratio of alpha-tubulin to beta-tubulin [14].
  • Microtubules are cytoskeletal organelles composed principally of polymerized alpha beta-tubulin heterodimers [15].
  • Cells overproducing only beta-tubulin accumulated fibrous structures associated with the cell membrane, whereas cells overproducing only alpha-tubulin displayed a diffuse signal throughout the cytoplasm [15].
  • Previously, we introduced mutations into the S. cerevisiae gene for beta-tubulin that imparted paclitaxel binding to the protein, but the mutant strain was not sensitive to paclitaxel and other microtubule-stabilizing agents, due to the multiple ABC transporters in the membranes of budding yeast [16].

Associations of TUB2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of TUB2

  • Residues in the N termini and the loops of the Rbl2 homodimer appear to mediate binding to beta-tubulin [21].

Regulatory relationships of TUB2


Other interactions of TUB2

  • STU1, a suppressor of a beta-tubulin mutation, encodes a novel and essential component of the yeast mitotic spindle [24].
  • The systematic tub1 mutations were placed, along with the comparable set of tub2 mutations previously described, onto a model of the yeast alpha-beta-tubulin dimer based on the three-dimensional structure of bovine tubulin [25].
  • Several conditional-lethal mutant alleles of the single-copy Saccharomyces cerevisiae beta-tubulin and actin genes were used to evaluate the roles of microtubules and actin filaments in the pheromone-induced extension of mating projections [26].
  • Overexpression of the JSN1 gene in a TUB2 strain causes that strain to become more sensitive to benomyl, a microtubule-destabilizing drug [27].
  • We have used computational docking and site-directed mutagenesis to generate a model of the Rbl2-Tub2 complex from the solved structures of these two proteins [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TUB2


  1. Truncation of the carboxy-terminal domain of yeast beta-tubulin causes temperature-sensitive growth and hypersensitivity to antimitotic drugs. Matsuzaki, F., Matsumoto, S., Yahara, I. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Regulation of tubulin levels and microtubule assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: consequences of altered tubulin gene copy number. Katz, W., Weinstein, B., Solomon, F. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning and sequence of a beta-tubulin cDNA from Pneumocystis carinii: possible implications for drug therapy. Dyer, M., Volpe, F., Delves, C.J., Somia, N., Burns, S., Scaife, J.G. Mol. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Amino-acid sequence data of beta-tubulin from Physarum polycephalum myxamoebae. Singhofer-Wowra, M., Clayton, L., Dawson, P., Gull, K., Little, M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Analysis of codon usage in beta-tubulin sequences of helminths. von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G., Harder, A., Failing, K., Pape, M., Schnieder, T. Parasitol. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. High-resolution model of the microtubule. Nogales, E., Whittaker, M., Milligan, R.A., Downing, K.H. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Rbl2p, a yeast protein that binds to beta-tubulin and participates in microtubule function in vivo. Archer, J.E., Vega, L.R., Solomon, F. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. A chicken-yeast chimeric beta-tubulin protein is incorporated into mouse microtubules in vivo. Bond, J.F., Fridovich-Keil, J.L., Pillus, L., Mulligan, R.C., Solomon, F. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Isolation of the beta-tubulin gene from yeast and demonstration of its essential function in vivo. Neff, N.F., Thomas, J.H., Grisafi, P., Botstein, D. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Isolation and DNA-binding characteristics of a protein involved in transcription activation of two divergently transcribed, essential yeast genes. Halfter, H., Müller, U., Winnacker, E.L., Gallwitz, D. EMBO J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Dominant effects of tubulin overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Burke, D., Gasdaska, P., Hartwell, L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Impaired core promoter recognition caused by novel yeast TAF145 mutations can be restored by creating a canonical TATA element within the promoter region of the TUB2 gene. Tsukihashi, Y., Miyake, T., Kawaichi, M., Kokubo, T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologue of the human protein phosphatase 4 core regulatory subunit R2 confers resistance to the anticancer drug cisplatin. Hastie, C.J., Vázquez-Martin, C., Philp, A., Stark, M.J., Cohen, P.T. FEBS J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Modulation of tubulin polypeptide ratios by the yeast protein Pac10p. Alvarez, P., Smith, A., Fleming, J., Solomon, F. Genetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Overexpression of tubulin in yeast: differences in subunit association. Bollag, D.M., Tornare, I., Stalder, R., Paunier Doret, A.M., Rozycki, M.D., Edelstein, S.J. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Paclitaxel-induced microtubule stabilization causes mitotic block and apoptotic-like cell death in a paclitaxel-sensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Foland, T.B., Dentler, W.L., Suprenant, K.A., Gupta, M.L., Himes, R.H. Yeast (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular characterization of four beta-tubulin genes from dinitroaniline susceptible and resistant biotypes of Eleusine indica. Yamamoto, E., Baird, W.V. Plant Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Microtubule dynamics modulated by guanosine triphosphate hydrolysis activity of beta-tubulin. Davis, A., Sage, C.R., Dougherty, C.A., Farrell, K.W. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. The beta-tubulin gene from rat and human isolates of Pneumocystis carinii. Edlind, T.D., Bartlett, M.S., Weinberg, G.A., Prah, G.N., Smith, J.W. Mol. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Mutation in the beta-tubulin signature motif suppresses microtubule GTPase activity and dynamics, and slows mitosis. Dougherty, C.A., Sage, C.R., Davis, A., Farrell, K.W. Biochemistry (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Model for the yeast cofactor A-beta-tubulin complex based on computational docking and mutagensis. You, L., Gillilan, R., Huffaker, T.C. J. Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. The Arabidopsis TUBULIN-FOLDING COFACTOR A gene is involved in the control of the alpha/beta-tubulin monomer balance. Kirik, V., Grini, P.E., Mathur, J., Klinkhammer, I., Adler, K., Bechtold, N., Herzog, M., Bonneville, J.M., Hülskamp, M. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. A novel step in beta-tubulin folding is important for heterodimer formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lacefield, S., Solomon, F. Genetics (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. STU1, a suppressor of a beta-tubulin mutation, encodes a novel and essential component of the yeast mitotic spindle. Pasqualone, D., Huffaker, T.C. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Structure-function relationships in yeast tubulins. Richards, K.L., Anders, K.R., Nogales, E., Schwartz, K., Downing, K.H., Botstein, D. Mol. Biol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Actin- and tubulin-dependent functions during Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating projection formation. Read, E.B., Okamura, H.H., Drubin, D.G. Mol. Biol. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Microtubule stability in budding yeast: characterization and dosage suppression of a benomyl-dependent tubulin mutant. Machin, N.A., Lee, J.M., Barnes, G. Mol. Biol. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Sequence, expression and mutational analysis of BAF1, a transcriptional activator and ARS1-binding protein of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Halfter, H., Kavety, B., Vandekerckhove, J., Kiefer, F., Gallwitz, D. EMBO J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression of alpha- and beta-tubulin genes during dimorphic-phase transitions of Histoplasma capsulatum. Harris, G.S., Keath, E.J., Medoff, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Isolation and characterization of a beta-tubulin gene from Candida albicans. Smith, H.A., Allaudeen, H.S., Whitman, M.H., Koltin, Y., Gorman, J.A. Gene (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Isolation and identification of six Pneumocystis carinii genes utilizing codon bias. Fletcher, L.D., Berger, L.C., Peel, S.A., Baric, R.S., Tidwell, R.R., Dykstra, C.C. Gene (1993) [Pubmed]
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